Schematic view of regulating factors of diuresis and natriuresis. Renal blood flow, renal perfusion pressure, and plasma oncotic pressure influence the effective filtration pressure gradient. Afferent and efferent glomerular arteriole tone can further influence the glomerular capillary hydraulic pressure while tubular cast accumulation increases the Bowman's hydrostatic pressure decreasing the effective filtration pressure gradient. Finally intrarenal blood flow distribution, conformational changes of tubule Na+/H+ exchanger, urea, and chloride channels and aquaporin-2 expression regulate water and sodium (Na+) handling of the ultrafiltrate (see text for further details). GFR, glomerular filtration rate.