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Table 1 NPPV in pediatric ARF from different causes

From: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children: a concise review

Study Cause of ARF (n) Location, Patients (n) Age (yr) NPPV type, Interface Avoided ETI (%) Other reported outcomes
ARF due to acute airway obstruction
Beers et al. [10] retrospective Status asthmaticus ED, 73 2-17a BiPAP Nasal mask 97 Improved RR, SaO2 Avoided PICU admission: 22% Major complication: 0%
Carroll et al. [11] retrospective Status asthmaticus PICU, 5 9.6b BiPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved RR, MPIS Major complication: 0%
Needleman et al. [12] prospective, physiological Status asthmaticus PICU, 15 8-21a BiPAP Nasal mask - Improved RR, thoracoabdominal synchrony, fractional inspired time: 80%
Akingbola et al. [13] case reports Status asthmaticus PICU, 3 9-15a BIPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved RR, PaCO2, pH Major complication: 0%
Till et al. [14] prospective, randomized, crossover Acute lower airway obstruction PICU, 16 4 (0.2-14)a,c BiPAP Nasal or facial mask - Improved RR, CAS, O2 requirement Major complication: 0%
Yanez et al. [15] multicentric, prospective, randomized, controlled (NPPV subgroup) Bronchiolitis- pneumonia (18), asthma (4), pneumonia (3) PICU, 25 1.3 (0.1-13)a,c BIPAP, BiPAP Facial mask 72 Improved RR, HR, PaO2/FiO2 at 1 hr Major complication: 4% (interstitial emphysema)
Thia et al. [16] d prospective, randomized, crossover Bronchiolitis PICU, 29 0.2 (0.1-0.4)c,e CPAP Nasal prongs - Improved PaCO2 Major complication: 0%
Cambonie et al. [17] d prospective, physiological Bronchiolitis PICU, 12 0.1b CPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved HR, PtcCO2 , O2 requirement, respiratory distress score, MABP at 1 hr Major complication: 0%
Javouhey et al. [18]d retrospective (NPPV subgroup) Bronchiolitis PICU, 15 0.1c BiPAP, CPAP Nasal mask 67 Major complication: 7% (bacterial pulmonary coinfections)
Larrar et al. [19] d prospective, noncontrolled (NPPV subgroup) Bronchiolitis PICU, 53 0.1 (0.01-1)a,b CPAP Nasal prongs 75 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs Death: 0% Major complication: 0%
Campion et al. [20] d,f prospective, noncontrolled (NPPV subgroup) Bronchiolitis-pneumonia PICU, 69 0.1 (0.03-1)a,c BIPAP, CPAP Nasal prongs, facial mask 83 Improved PaCO2, pH at 2 hrs Death: 0% Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [21] prospective, randomized, controlled Laryngomalacia (5), tracheomalacia (3), others (2) PICU, 10 0.8 (0.2-1.5)a,c BiPAP, CPAP Nasal mask - Improved RR, respiratory effort in both types of NPPV Patient-ventilator asynchrony with BiPAP
Padman et al. [22] f prospective, noncontrolled (upper airway obstruction subgroup) Inspiratory stridor PICU, 3 13b BiPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved RR, HR, gas exchange, serum HCO3, dyspnea score at 72 hrs Major complication: 0%
ARF due to parenchymal lung disease
Munoz-Bonet et al. [23]]f prospective, noncontrolled (pneumonia subgroup) Pneumonia PICU, 13 0.2-15.8a BIPAP Facial mask 100 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, SaO2, pH, clinical score within the first 6 hrs Death: 0% Major complication: 0%
Bernet et al. [24] d prospective, noncontrolled (pneumonia subgroup) Pneumonia PICU, 14 2.4 (0.01-18)g BIPAP, CPAP Nasal or facial mask 50 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, serum HCO3 within the first 8 hrs Death: 0%
Fortenberry et al. [25] f retrospective, (pneumonia subgroup) Pneumonia PICU, 21 0.7-17a BiPAP Nasal mask 90 Improved RR, PaCO2, PaO2, pH, SaO2, PaO2/FiO2 at 1 hr Death: 5% Major complication: 0%
Joshi et al. [26] retrospective (primary parenchymal lung disease subgroup) Pneumonia, ARDS PICU, 29 13c BiPAP Facial mask 62 Improved RR, PaCO2, O2 requirement Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27] retrospective (primary parenchymal lung disease subgroup) CAP (23), ARDS (9), ACS (9) PICU, 41 8 (0.2-16)a,b BIPAP Nasal or facial mask 87 (CAP) 22 (ARDS) 100 (ACS) Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hr Death: 4% (CAP), 22% (ARDS), 0% (ACS) Major complication: 0%
Padman et al. [22] f prospective, noncontrolled (primary parenchymal lung disease subgroup) Pneumonia (13), ACS (5 episodes) PICU, 17 10.6b BiPAP Nasal mask 85 (CAP) 80 (ACS) Improved RR, HR, gas exchange, serum HCO3, dyspnea score at 72 hrs Major complication: 0%
Padman et al. [28] retrospective ACS (25 episodes) Inpatient ward, 9 11.8 (4-20)a,b BiPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved RR, HR, SaO2, O2 requirement Avoided PICU admission: 44%
  1. ACS, acute chest syndrome; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; BiPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure; BIPAP, biphasic positive airway pressure; CAS, clinical asthma score; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; ED, emergency department; ETI, endotracheal intubation; FiO2, fraction of oxygen in inspired gas; HR, heart rate; MABP, mean arterial blood pressure; MPIS, modified pulmonary index score; NPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PtcCO2, transcutaneous PCO2; RR, respiratory rate; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation.
  2. aRange.
  3. bMean.
  4. cMedian.
  5. dNeonatal cases also were included in the study.
  6. eInterquartile range.
  7. fCertain patients included in the study had underlying neurologic or chronic lung disease.
  8. gThe numbers represent the median (range) age of the patients (n = 42) with ARF of various causes included in the study.