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Table 1 NPPV in pediatric ARF from different causes

From: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children: a concise review

Study Cause of ARF (n) Location, Patients (n) Age (yr) NPPV type, Interface Avoided ETI (%) Other reported outcomes
ARF due to acute airway obstruction
Beers et al. [10]
retrospective
Status asthmaticus ED, 73 2-17a BiPAP
Nasal mask
97 Improved RR, SaO2
Avoided PICU admission: 22%
Major complication: 0%
Carroll et al. [11]
retrospective
Status asthmaticus PICU, 5 9.6b BiPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved RR, MPIS
Major complication: 0%
Needleman et al. [12]
prospective, physiological
Status asthmaticus PICU, 15 8-21a BiPAP
Nasal mask
- Improved RR, thoracoabdominal synchrony, fractional inspired time: 80%
Akingbola et al. [13]
case reports
Status asthmaticus PICU, 3 9-15a BIPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved RR, PaCO2, pH
Major complication: 0%
Till et al. [14]
prospective, randomized, crossover
Acute lower airway obstruction PICU, 16 4 (0.2-14)a,c BiPAP
Nasal or facial mask
- Improved RR, CAS, O2 requirement
Major complication: 0%
Yanez et al. [15]
multicentric, prospective, randomized, controlled (NPPV subgroup)
Bronchiolitis-
pneumonia (18), asthma (4), pneumonia (3)
PICU, 25 1.3 (0.1-13)a,c BIPAP, BiPAP
Facial mask
72 Improved RR, HR, PaO2/FiO2 at 1 hr
Major complication: 4% (interstitial emphysema)
Thia et al. [16] d
prospective, randomized, crossover
Bronchiolitis PICU, 29 0.2 (0.1-0.4)c,e CPAP
Nasal prongs
- Improved PaCO2
Major complication: 0%
Cambonie et al. [17] d
prospective, physiological
Bronchiolitis PICU, 12 0.1b CPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved HR, PtcCO2 , O2
requirement, respiratory distress score, MABP at 1 hr
Major complication: 0%
Javouhey et al. [18]d retrospective (NPPV subgroup) Bronchiolitis PICU, 15 0.1c BiPAP,
CPAP
Nasal mask
67 Major complication: 7% (bacterial pulmonary coinfections)
Larrar et al. [19] d
prospective, noncontrolled (NPPV subgroup)
Bronchiolitis PICU, 53 0.1 (0.01-1)a,b CPAP
Nasal prongs
75 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs
Death: 0%
Major complication: 0%
Campion et al. [20] d,f
prospective, noncontrolled (NPPV subgroup)
Bronchiolitis-pneumonia PICU, 69 0.1 (0.03-1)a,c BIPAP,
CPAP
Nasal prongs,
facial mask
83 Improved PaCO2, pH at 2 hrs
Death: 0%
Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [21]
prospective, randomized,
controlled
Laryngomalacia (5), tracheomalacia (3), others (2) PICU, 10 0.8 (0.2-1.5)a,c BiPAP,
CPAP
Nasal mask
- Improved RR, respiratory effort in both types of NPPV
Patient-ventilator asynchrony with BiPAP
Padman et al. [22] f
prospective, noncontrolled (upper airway obstruction subgroup)
Inspiratory stridor PICU, 3 13b BiPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved RR, HR, gas exchange, serum HCO3, dyspnea score at 72 hrs
Major complication: 0%
ARF due to parenchymal lung disease
Munoz-Bonet et al. [23]]f
prospective, noncontrolled (pneumonia subgroup)
Pneumonia PICU, 13 0.2-15.8a BIPAP
Facial mask
100 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, SaO2, pH, clinical score within the first 6 hrs
Death: 0%
Major complication: 0%
Bernet et al. [24] d
prospective, noncontrolled
(pneumonia subgroup)
Pneumonia PICU, 14 2.4 (0.01-18)g BIPAP,
CPAP
Nasal or facial mask
50 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, serum HCO3 within the first 8 hrs
Death: 0%
Fortenberry et al. [25] f
retrospective, (pneumonia subgroup)
Pneumonia PICU, 21 0.7-17a BiPAP
Nasal mask
90 Improved RR, PaCO2, PaO2, pH, SaO2, PaO2/FiO2 at 1 hr
Death: 5%
Major complication: 0%
Joshi et al. [26]
retrospective (primary
parenchymal lung disease subgroup)
Pneumonia, ARDS PICU, 29 13c BiPAP
Facial mask
62 Improved RR, PaCO2, O2 requirement
Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27]
retrospective (primary
parenchymal lung disease subgroup)
CAP (23), ARDS (9), ACS (9) PICU, 41 8 (0.2-16)a,b BIPAP
Nasal or facial mask
87 (CAP)
22 (ARDS)
100 (ACS)
Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hr
Death: 4% (CAP), 22% (ARDS), 0% (ACS)
Major complication: 0%
Padman et al. [22] f
prospective, noncontrolled (primary parenchymal lung disease subgroup)
Pneumonia (13), ACS (5 episodes) PICU, 17 10.6b BiPAP
Nasal mask
85 (CAP)
80 (ACS)
Improved RR, HR, gas exchange, serum HCO3, dyspnea score at 72 hrs
Major complication: 0%
Padman et al. [28]
retrospective
ACS (25 episodes) Inpatient ward, 9 11.8 (4-20)a,b BiPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved RR, HR, SaO2, O2 requirement
Avoided PICU admission: 44%
  1. ACS, acute chest syndrome; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; BiPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure; BIPAP, biphasic positive airway pressure; CAS, clinical asthma score; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; ED, emergency department; ETI, endotracheal intubation; FiO2, fraction of oxygen in inspired gas; HR, heart rate; MABP, mean arterial blood pressure; MPIS, modified pulmonary index score; NPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PtcCO2, transcutaneous PCO2; RR, respiratory rate; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation.
  2. aRange.
  3. bMean.
  4. cMedian.
  5. dNeonatal cases also were included in the study.
  6. eInterquartile range.
  7. fCertain patients included in the study had underlying neurologic or chronic lung disease.
  8. gThe numbers represent the median (range) age of the patients (n = 42) with ARF of various causes included in the study.