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Table 2 NPPV in specific circumstances

From: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children: a concise review

Study Cause of ARF (n) Location, Patients (n) Age (yr) NPPV type, Interface Avoided ETI (%) Other reported outcomes
NPPV in postoperative ARF
Stucki et al. [8] a
prospective, crossover (cardiac surgery)
Interstitial pulmonary oedema PICU, 6 0.4 (0.04-0.6)b,c BIPAP
Nasal mask
100 Improved RR, PTPes, dPes, dyspnea score
Death: 0%
Bernet et al. [24] a
prospective, noncontrolled (cardiac surgery subgroup)
ND PICU, 11 2.4 (0.01-
Nasal or facial mask
64 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, pH, serum HCO3 within the first 8 hrs
Death: 0%
Joshi et al. [26]
retrospective (postoperative subgroup)
Atelectasis PICU, 16 12b BiPAP
Facial mask
94 Improved RR, PaCO2, O2 requirement, SaO2
Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27] a
retrospective (postextubation subgroup)e
ND PICU, 61 3.2 (0.04-
Nasal or facial mask
67 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs
Death: 11%
Major complication: 0%
Kovacikova et al. [29]
case reports (cardiac surgery)
Bilateral diaphragm paralysis PICU, 2 0.9-3.5c BIPAP
Facial mask, Nasopharyngeal tube
100 Improved RR, gas exchange
Major complication: 100% (respiratory tract infection)
Chin et al. [30]
retrospective (liver transplantation)
Atelectasis, hypercapnia +/-hypoxemia,
pleural effusion, pneumonia
PICU, 15 0.2-14c BiPAP
Nasal or facial mask
87 Improved PaCO2, SaO2, atelectasis
Death: 13%
NPPV for facilitation of ventilation weaning/rescue of failed extubation (not postoperatively)
Lum et al. [31] a
prospective, noncontrolled (prior IMV subgroup)
Post-extubation failure (51), weaning facilitation (98) PICU, 149 0.5 (0.1- 2)b,g BiPAP
Nasal or facial mask
75 (failure group), 86 (weaning group) Improved RR, HR, FiO2 within the first 24 hrs
Death: 5%
Major complication: 11% (pneumonia)
Mayordomo-Colunga et al. [32] a,h
prospective, noncontrolled
Post-extubation failure (20),
weaning facilitation (21)
PICU, 36 (41
1.7 (0.04-
Nasal or facial mask, helmet
50 (failure group), 81 (weaning group) Death: 5%
Major complication: 5% (hypercapnia), 12% (upper airway obstruction), 7% (apnea), 10% (other)
NPPV in immunocompromised patients
Munoz-Bonet et al. [23]
prospective, noncontrolled (immunocompromised subgroup)
Pnemonia (3), ARDS (5) PICU, 8 1.5-13.8c BIPAP
Facial mask
100 (pneumonia),
40 (ARDS)
Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, SaO2, pH, clinical score within the first 6 hrs
Death: 0%
Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27]
retrospective (immunocompromised subgroup)
ND PICU, 12 8 (3-16)c,f BIPAP
Nasal or facial mask
92 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs
Death: 8%,
Major complication: 0%
Schiller et al. [33]
Pneumonia (5), ARDS (10),
pulmonary mass (1)
PICU, 14 (16
13.3f BiPAP
Facial mask
80 Improved RR, PaO2 at 1 hr
Death: 20%
Major complication: 0%
Piastra et al. [34]
prospective, noncontrolled
Facial mask, Helmet
54 Improved gas exchange at 1
hr (82%), sustained (74%)
Death: 35%
Major complication: 0%
Desprez et al. [35]
case reports
Pneumonia (1), ARDS (1) PICU, 2 13-14c BIPAP
Facial mask
100 Death: 0%
Major complication: 50% (upper and lower digestive hemorrhage)
Pancera et al. [36]
retrospective (NPPV
Nasal mask
74 Death: 22.5%
  1. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; BiPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure; BIPAP, biphasic positive airway pressure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; dPes, oesophageal inspiratory pressure swing; ETI, endotracheal intubation; HR, heart rate; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; ND, not determined; NPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit; PTPes, oesophageal pressure-time product; RR, respiratory rate; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation.
  2. aNeonatal cases also were included in the study.
  3. bMedian.
  4. cRange.
  5. dNumbers represent the median (range) age of the patients (n = 42) with ARF of various causes included in the study.
  6. e32 patients were intubated for liver transplantation, 11 for other abdominal surgery, and 18 for respiratory distress.
  7. fMean.
  8. gInterquartile range.
  9. hCertain patients included in the study had underlying neurologic disease.
  10. iNumber represent the mean age of the patients (n = 239) included in the study, of which 120 had NPPV.