Skip to main content


Table 2 NPPV in specific circumstances

From: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children: a concise review

Study Cause of ARF (n) Location, Patients (n) Age (yr) NPPV type, Interface Avoided ETI (%) Other reported outcomes
NPPV in postoperative ARF
Stucki et al. [8] a prospective, crossover (cardiac surgery) Interstitial pulmonary oedema PICU, 6 0.4 (0.04-0.6)b,c BIPAP Nasal mask 100 Improved RR, PTPes, dPes, dyspnea score Death: 0%
Bernet et al. [24] a prospective, noncontrolled (cardiac surgery subgroup) ND PICU, 11 2.4 (0.01- 18)d BIPAP, CPAP Nasal or facial mask 64 Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, pH, serum HCO3 within the first 8 hrs Death: 0%
Joshi et al. [26] retrospective (postoperative subgroup) Atelectasis PICU, 16 12b BiPAP Facial mask 94 Improved RR, PaCO2, O2 requirement, SaO2 Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27] a retrospective (postextubation subgroup)e ND PICU, 61 3.2 (0.04- 15)c,f BIPAP Nasal or facial mask 67 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs Death: 11% Major complication: 0%
Kovacikova et al. [29] case reports (cardiac surgery) Bilateral diaphragm paralysis PICU, 2 0.9-3.5c BIPAP Facial mask, Nasopharyngeal tube 100 Improved RR, gas exchange Major complication: 100% (respiratory tract infection)
Chin et al. [30] retrospective (liver transplantation) Atelectasis, hypercapnia +/-hypoxemia, pleural effusion, pneumonia PICU, 15 0.2-14c BiPAP Nasal or facial mask 87 Improved PaCO2, SaO2, atelectasis Death: 13%
NPPV for facilitation of ventilation weaning/rescue of failed extubation (not postoperatively)
Lum et al. [31] a prospective, noncontrolled (prior IMV subgroup) Post-extubation failure (51), weaning facilitation (98) PICU, 149 0.5 (0.1- 2)b,g BiPAP Nasal or facial mask 75 (failure group), 86 (weaning group) Improved RR, HR, FiO2 within the first 24 hrs Death: 5% Major complication: 11% (pneumonia)
Mayordomo-Colunga et al. [32] a,h prospective, noncontrolled Post-extubation failure (20), weaning facilitation (21) PICU, 36 (41 episodes) 1.7 (0.04- 17)b,c BiPAP, CPAP Nasal or facial mask, helmet 50 (failure group), 81 (weaning group) Death: 5% Major complication: 5% (hypercapnia), 12% (upper airway obstruction), 7% (apnea), 10% (other)
NPPV in immunocompromised patients
Munoz-Bonet et al. [23] prospective, noncontrolled (immunocompromised subgroup) Pnemonia (3), ARDS (5) PICU, 8 1.5-13.8c BIPAP Facial mask 100 (pneumonia), 40 (ARDS) Improved RR, HR, PaCO2, SaO2, pH, clinical score within the first 6 hrs Death: 0% Major complication: 0%
Essouri et al. [27] retrospective (immunocompromised subgroup) ND PICU, 12 8 (3-16)c,f BIPAP Nasal or facial mask 92 Improved RR, PaCO2 at 2 hrs Death: 8%, Major complication: 0%
Schiller et al. [33] retrospective Pneumonia (5), ARDS (10), pulmonary mass (1) PICU, 14 (16 episodes) 13.3f BiPAP Facial mask 80 Improved RR, PaO2 at 1 hr Death: 20% Major complication: 0%
Piastra et al. [34] prospective, noncontrolled ARDS PICU, 23 10.2f BIPAP Facial mask, Helmet 54 Improved gas exchange at 1 hr (82%), sustained (74%) Death: 35% Major complication: 0%
Desprez et al. [35] case reports Pneumonia (1), ARDS (1) PICU, 2 13-14c BIPAP Facial mask 100 Death: 0% Major complication: 50% (upper and lower digestive hemorrhage)
Pancera et al. [36] retrospective (NPPV subgroup) ND PICU, 120 9i BIPAP Nasal mask 74 Death: 22.5%
  1. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; BiPAP, bilevel positive airway pressure; BIPAP, biphasic positive airway pressure; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; dPes, oesophageal inspiratory pressure swing; ETI, endotracheal intubation; HR, heart rate; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; ND, not determined; NPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PaO2, arterial partial pressure of oxygen; PICU, pediatric intensive care unit; PTPes, oesophageal pressure-time product; RR, respiratory rate; SaO2, arterial oxygen saturation.
  2. aNeonatal cases also were included in the study.
  3. bMedian.
  4. cRange.
  5. dNumbers represent the median (range) age of the patients (n = 42) with ARF of various causes included in the study.
  6. e32 patients were intubated for liver transplantation, 11 for other abdominal surgery, and 18 for respiratory distress.
  7. fMean.
  8. gInterquartile range.
  9. hCertain patients included in the study had underlying neurologic disease.
  10. iNumber represent the mean age of the patients (n = 239) included in the study, of which 120 had NPPV.