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Table 3 Predictive factors for the outcome of NPPV in children with ARF

From: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in children: a concise review

Study Population (n) Age (yr) Success rate (%)a Predictors of failure
Campion et al. [20] b,c
prospective noncontrolled
Bronchiolitis (69) 0.1 (0.03-1)d,e 83 Apnea
Higher PaCO2 on admission
Higher PRISM score at 24 hrs
Bernet et al. [24] b
prospective noncontrolled
Pneumonia (14), bronchiolitis (4), postoperative ARF (11), other (13) 2.4 (0.01-18)d,e 57 FiO2 > 0.8 at 1 hr
Joshi et al. [26]
retrospective (primary parenchymal lung disease subgroup)
Pneumonia or ARDS (29) 13d 62 Age ≤ 6 yr
FiO2 > 0.6 within the first 24 hrs
PaCO2 ≥ 55 mmHg within the first 24 hrs
Essouri et al. [27] b
CAP (23), ARDS (9), ACS (9), immune deficiency (12), postextubation ARF (61) 5.3 (0.04-16)e,f 73 ARDS
High PELOD score
Lum et al. [31] b
prospective noncontrolled
Pulmonary diseases (129), postextubation ARF (149) 0.7 (0.3-2.8)d,g 76 Higher FiO2 needs at start of NPPV
Higher PRISM score on admission
Sepsis at start of NPPV
Munoz-Bonet et al. [54]
prospective noncontrolled
Pneumonia (20), ARDS (10), postextubation ARF (11), other (6) 7.1 (0.1-16)e,f 81 MAP > 11.5 cm H2O
FiO2 > 0.6
Mayordomo-Colunga et al. [55] b
prospective noncontrolled
Type I ARF (38), type II ARF (78) 0.9 (0.05-14)d,e 84 Lower RR decrease at 1 hr and 6 hrs
Higher PRISM score at start and at 1 hr
Type I ARF
  1. ACS, acute chest syndrome; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF, acute respiratory failure; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; FiO2, fraction of oxygen in inspired gas; MAP, mean airway pressure; NPPV, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation; PaCO2, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PELOD, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction; PRISM, pediatric risk of mortality; RR, respiratory rate.
  2. aNPPV was considered successful when endotracheal intubation was avoided.
  3. bNeonatal cases also were included in the study.
  4. cCertain patients included in the study had underlying neurologic or chronic lung disease.
  5. dMedian.
  6. eRange.
  7. fMean.
  8. gInterquartile range.