(A) Comparison of lung cytokine levels in nonventilated rats ( Cont ) and in rats subjected to an injurious mechanical ventilation strategy (30 mL/kg tidal volume and zero end-expiratory pressure) alone ( HV ) or to hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion alone ( HSR ). Compared with controls, lung cytokine concentrations were higher after HSR but not after HV. (B) Comparison of lung cytokine levels in rats subjected to HSR alone, HSR combined with conventional ventilation (HSR-CV) and HSR followed by HV (HSR-HV). Injurious ventilation (HV) after HSR significantly increased mediator release above the levels observed after HSR alone or combined with conventional ventilation. Results are expressed in pg/g. *p < 0.05 as compared with controls (A) or HSR (B). The same observations were made in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma. Adapted with permission. From Bouadma et al. .