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Table 1 Univariate analysis of risk factors associated with mortality in patients with PVL-secreting MSSA-necrotizing CAP

From: Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia due to methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus secreting Panton-Valentine leukocidin: a review of case reports

  Died
(N = 13)
Survived
(N = 19)
Univariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
P value
Demographics     
Age (yr), mean ± SD 25.6 ± 15.5 23.7 ± 17.2   0.752
Male gender 6/13 (46%) 14/19 (74%) 0.31 (0.07-1.36) 0.15
Clinical characteristics     
Influenza-like prodromea 9/12 (75%) 4/16 (25%) 9.00 (1.60-50.7) 0.02
Confirmed influenza coinfection 0/3 3/4 (75%) 0.06 (0.002-2.08) 0.143
SSTI on admission 1/13 (8%) 9/19 (47%) 0.09 (0.01-0.86) 0.024
T° < 36° or > 38° on admission 7/11 (63%) 9/11 (82%) 0.39 (0.05-2.77) 0.635
Multilobar involvement 12/12 14/16 (87%) 4.31 (0.19-98.6) 0.492
Lower airway hemorrhageb 11/12 (92%) 9/16 (56%) 8.56 (0.88-83.1) 0.088
Septic shock 11/11 7/15 (47%) 26.0 (1.30-522) 0.007
Laboratory findings     
Leukocytopenia 9/11 (82%) 8/17 (47%) 5.06 (0.83-30.8) 0.115
Thrombocytopenia 2/8 (25%) 6/6 0.03 (0.001-0.75) 0.01
Coagulopathy 9/9 6/8 (75%) 7.31 (0.30-178.7) 0.206
Positive blood cultures 5/13 (38%) 8/17 (47%) 0.56 (0.13-2.41) 0.484
Treatment     
Mechanical ventilation 11/12 (92%) 10/14 (71%) 10.7 (0.52-223) 0.33
First-line antibiotics targeting toxin productionc 0/12 0/18 -- 1
Intravenous IgG 1/13 (8%) 5/19 (26%) 0.26 (0.03-2.51) 0.361
  1. aInfluenza-like syndrome > 48 h before admission. Symptoms include fever, shivering, chills, malaise, dry cough, loss of appetite, body aches, and nausea.
  2. bHemoptysis and/or macroscopic blood on bronchoscopy/BAL.
  3. cClindamycin, linezolid, or rifampicin,
  4. PVL, Panton-Valentine leukocidin; MSSA, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; CAP, community-acquired pneumonia; SSTI, skin and soft-tissue infection.