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Table 1 Statins and corticosteroids

From: Statins in the critically ill

Effects Statins Corticosteroids
Anti-inflammatory ↓ CRP↓ Chemokine release (MCP-1, RANTES)↓ Cytokines (IL-1β, TNF α, IL-6, IL-8)↓ Adhesion molecule (P-selectin, VLA 4, CD11a, CD11b, CD18) ↓ CRP↓ Chemokine release (MCP-1, RANTES)↓ Cytokines (IL-1β, TNF α, IL-6, IL-8) but ↑ IL-10, one of the major anti-inflammatory cytokines↓ Adhesion molecule (ICAM-1, ELAM-1)↑Production of anti-inflammatory monocyte subtype.
Immunomodulatory ↓ MCH II expression and activity.↓ TLR-4 expression.↓↓ Proliferation of monocytes and macrophages.↓ Lymphocytes T activation ↑ MCH II expression on monocytes and eosinophiles.↓ CD 14 expression on monocytes↓ Complement activation.↓ Proliferation of lymphocytes.↓ Neutrophils aggregation and chemotactism.↑ Apoptosis of mature lympho T, eosinophils, endothelial cells and precursors of dendritic cells, but ↓ apoptosis of neutrophils.↑ Phagocytosis of apoptic neutrophils.
Endothelial function ↓ iNos expression↓ Leucocyte adhesion ↓ iNos expression↓ Leucocyte adhesion↓ Synthesis of COX-2, PGE-1 and prostacyclin↓ Production of Vascular endothelial growth factor↑ Sensitivity to α-agonist
Antioxidant ↓ NADPH oxidase↑ Haem oxygenase ↓ NADPH oxidase↓ release of superoxide from neutrophils
Antithrombotic ↓Platelet activation↓Plasminogen activator inhibitor levels↑Tissue plasminogen activator↑Thrombomodulin expression and activity ↓Platelet activation and aggregation.
  1. Comparison between the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, endothelial, antioxidant, and antithrombotic effects of statins and corticosteroids.