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Table 1 List of safety indicators

From: Overview of medical errors and adverse events

Process indicators
Mechanical ventilation
   Semi-recumbent position during mechanical ventilation [72, 73]
   Overinflation of the endotracheal balloon [14]
   Appropriate sedation [72, 74]
   Screening for ventilator weaning readiness [73]
   Sedation interruption [73]
   Sedation monitoring [73]
   Medication administered to wrong patient [14]
   Error administering anticoagulant medication [14]
   Error prescribing anticoagulant medication [14]
   Error administering vasoactive drugs [14]
   Error administering insulin [14]
   Death or serious disability associated with hypoglycaemia [75]
IV lines
   Screening for readiness for removal of central venous catheter [72]
   Appropriate use of prophylaxis against gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients receiving mechanical ventilation [72, 73]
   Appropriate use of thromboembolism prophylaxis [72, 73]
   Appropriate use of early enteral nutrition [72]
   Early management of severe sepsis, septic shock [72]
   Surgical intervention in traumatic brain injury with subdural and/or epidural brain trauma [72]
   Monitoring of intracranial pressure in severe traumatic brain injury with abnormal CT findings [72]
   Delay in surgical treatment [14]
   Change of route for quinolones IV/PO [72]
   Screening for MRSA on admission [76]
   Pain management in un sedated patients [72]
   Events during ICU transport [73]
   Pneumonia associated with mechanical ventilation [72]
   Accidental extubation [23, 73, 76]
   Accidental removal of a central venous catheter
Catheter-related bloodstream infections [76]
Pneumothorax related to insertion of a central venous catheter [40, 76]
   Death or serious disability associated with intravascular air embolism [75]
   Fall [14]
   Death or serious disability associated with a haemolytic reaction due to the administration of ABO-incompatible blood or blood product [75]
   Percentage of resistant organisms [74]
   Pressure sores [73]
Outcome indicators
   ICU mortality rate [74]
   Hospital mortality rate [73]
   Percentage of ICU patients with ICU stays longer than 7 days [74]
   Mean ICU length of stay [74]
   Mean days on mechanical ventilation [74]
   Rate of re-admissions < 72 hours [73]
   Family satisfaction [73]
Structural indicators
Institutional variables
   Process for ensuring staff competencies
   Transitional period to integrate new healthcare workers
   Clear task identification
   Absenteeism, magnitude of personnel turn-over
   Adverse-event reporting system
Task variables
   Availability of protocols
   Policy to prevent medication errors
   Policy to register outcomes
Team variables
   Adequacy of staffing
   Nurse-to-patient ratio
   Availability of an intensive care practitioner 24 h a day
   Pharmacist present during ICU rounds [77])
   Communication or conflicts among team members [78]