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Table 1 Acute life-threatening manifestations of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis [[9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21, 22, 23]]

From: Vasculitic emergencies in the intensive care unit: a special focus on cryoglobulinemic vasculitis

Widespread vasculitis - Multiple organ involvement, including the skin and at least two other organs (kidney, gut, lung, CNS)
Renal involvement - AKI and/or oliguria
- Glomerulonephritis :
 - Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
 - Mesangial glomerulonephritis
 - Focal and segmental glomerulonephritis
Lung involvement - Subclinical alveolitis
- Interstitial lung fibrosis
- Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage
Heart involvement - Acute heart failure
- Acute coronary syndrome
Digestive tract involvement - Ischemic bowel vasculitis
- Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
- Acute intraabdominal organ injury (pancreatitis, cholecystitis)
CNS involvement - Stroke
- Encephalopathy with impaired cognitive function
- Brain hemorrhage
- Spinal cord involvement
Other - Hyperviscosity syndrome
- caused by high levels of cryoglobulins
- combines acute respiratory distress, visual disturbances and retinal hemorrhage, encephalopathy with impaired cognitive function, and AKI
- B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders and related complications
- Sepsis, bacterial infections, and related complications
- Liver failure in HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia (acute-on-chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis)
  1. HCV = hepatitis C virus; AKI = acute kidney injury; CNS = central nervous system.