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Table 2 Principal characteristics of the randomized controlled trials assessing the role of PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship in adult critically ill patients

From: Biomarker-guided antibiotic therapy in adult critically ill patients: a critical review

  Trial Sample size Rate of exclusion (%) Infections Community/nosocomial Pneumonia PCT assay Minimum duration AB therapy Decision to start antibiotics (no AB), PCT/control Duration of antibiotic therapy, PCT/control, days Overruling PCT algorithm (%) LOS ICU, PCT/control, days Superinfection, PCT/control, N(%) Relapse, PCT/control, N(%) Mortality 28d, PCT/control, N(%) Mortality 60d, PCT/control, N(%)
Svoboda, 2007 [43]   72 381 (84) 0/72 NA PCT-Q      16.1 ± 6.9/19.4 ± 8.9    10/38 (26 %)/13/34 (38 %)  
Nobre, 2008 [41] ProSEP 79 203 (72) 53/26 52 TRACE    8 (4–27)/14 (6–39) 19 4 (1–21)/7 (1–91) 7/31 (22.5 %)/11/37 (29.7 %) 1/39 (2.6 %)/1/40 (2.5 %) 8/39 (20.5 %)/8/40 (20 %)  
Schroeder, 2009 [44]   27 98 (78) 0/27 8 PCT LIA yes   6.6 ± 1.1/8.3 ± 0.7   16.4 ± 8.3/16.7 ± 5.6    3/14 (21.4 %)/3/13 (23.1 %)  
Stolz, 2009 [45] ProVAP 101 63 (38) 0/101 101 TRACE yes   10 (6–16)/15 (10–23) 16 13 (7–21)/13.5 (8–22.2) 7/51 (13.7 %)/6/50 (12 %)   8/51 (16 %)/12/50 (24 %)  
Hochreiter, 2009 [46] ProSICU 110 285 (72) 0/110 43 PCT LIA    5.9 ± 1.7/7.9 ± 0.5   15.5 ± 12.5/17.7 ± 10.1    15/57 (26.3 %)/14/53 (26.4 %)  
Bouadma, 2010 [42] PRORATA 601 685 (52) 326/275 394 TRACE yes 4 (1.7 %)/15 (4.8 %) 10.3 ± 7.7/13.3 ± 7.6 53 15.9 ± 16.1/14.4 ± 14.1 106/307 (34.5 %)/97/314 (30.9 %) 20/307 (6.5 %)/16/314 (5.1 %) 65/307 (21.2 %)/64/314 (20.4 %) 92/307 (30 %)/82/314 (26.1 %)
Jensen, 2011 [47] PASS 1200 3 (0.3) 480/720 666 TRACE    6 (3–11)/4 (3–10) 17.9 6 (3–12)/5 (3–11)    190/604 (31.5 %)/191/596 (32 %) 231/604 (38.2 %)/220/596 (36.9 %)
  1. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated.
  2. AB = antibiotics; LOS = length of stay; PCT = procalcitonin; PCT LIA = luminescence immunoassay; PCT-Q = semiquantitative immunochromatographic method; TRACE = time-resolved amplified cryptate emission.