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Table 1 Pharmacokinetic parameters of selected beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients without renal dysfunction

From: Does Beta-lactam Pharmacokinetic Variability in Critically Ill Patients Justify Therapeutic Drug Monitoring? A Systematic Review

Antibiotic Patients Dose Vd (l/kg) CL (ml/min) T ½(h) C max(mg/ml) AUC (mg·h/L) MIC targeted (mg/L) PD target achieved Reference
Cefepime 12 2 g q12h 0.34* 123 3.2   346 4 77% T > MIC [18]
19 2 g q8h 0.36 88.2* 3.37 68 310 32 34% T > 4xMIC [20]
13 2 g q12h 0.32* 134 2.5   249    [33]
7 2 g q12h 0.47* 125 3.42   305 7 80% T > MIC90 [19]
5 100% T > MIC90
17 2 g q8h 0.37 88.2* 3.37 66.56 324.02    [34]
Ceftazidime 15 2 g q8h 0.81* 151 4.75   277.31    [21]
12 2 g q8h 0.27*   3.48 124.4 331 4 92% T > MIC [35]
17 2 g q8h 0.51 63.7* 6.28 61.65 523.49    [34]
18 2 g q8h 0.48 112* 5.84 63 522 32 45% T > 4xMIC [20]
10 2 g q8h 0.23 112* 1.98      [36]
49 2 g q8h or 6 g CI/day 0.67* 91.3       [22]
Meropenem 8 2 g q8h or 0.38* 156.7 2.4 110.1 193.8   100% T > MIC [37]
7 2 g LD + 3 g CI/day 0.37* 128.3    117.5   100% T > MIC
16 1 g q8h 0.43 130.9* 2.05 35 132 8 57% T > 4xMIC [20]
10 1 g q8h or 3 g CI/day 0.32* 226.7       [23]
10 1 g q8h 0.39* 191 2.13 46.6 99.5 0.25-1 100% T > MIC [38]
Piperacillin 8 12/1.5 g PIP/TAZ CI 0.33 286.7   144     [24]
8 4/0.5 PIP/TAZ q6h or q8h   266.6    
27 4 g q6h 0.38 141.4* 2.58 123 469 64 33% T > 4xMIC [20]
Ceftriaxone 54 2 g qd 0.28* 14.7 9.6    8 16% T > MIC [25]
10 2 g qd 0.28* 41.3 6.4 204.9     [30]
Ertapenem 17 1 g CI/day 0.21* 43.2 4.15 90 418 2 25% T > MIC [39]
8 1 g qd 0.85* 200.5 5.7 94.1 317.7    [26]
Flucloxacillin 10   0.29* 150.2 2.45      [27]
  1. Vd, volume of distribution; CL, clearance; Cmax, peak serum concentration; AUC, area under the concentration vs. time curve; MIC, minimum inhibitory concentration; CI, continuous infusion; LD, loading dose; PIP, piperacillin; TAZ, tazobactam; *Data were converted considering 70 kg body weight.