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Table 2 Pharmacokinetic parameters of selected beta-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients undergoing CRRT

From: Does Beta-lactam Pharmacokinetic Variability in Critically Ill Patients Justify Therapeutic Drug Monitoring? A Systematic Review

Antibiotic Patients Dose Renal replacement modalities Pharmacokinetic data
RRT Dialyzer Q B(mL/min) Q UF(mL/min) Q DF(mL/h) C max(mg/L) t H(h) Vd(l/kg) AUC (mg·h/L) CL tot (mL/min) CL RRT(mL/min) Sc/Sa Ref.
Cefepime 4 2 g q8h CVVH or CVVHD PAN or PS 140-250 16.7-35 500-1000 100.5 l 4.6 0.6   111.5 27.2 0.76 [67]
5 1-4 g q12h or q24h CVVH PAN 150 16   44.6 - 94.9 12.9 0.46 834.7 -1,677.8 35.9 13 0.86 [66]
7 1-4 g q12h or q24h CVVHDF PAN 150 17 857-1020 25.7 -90.8 8.6 0.34 344.9 -1,306.8 46.8 26 0.78
8 2 g q12h CVVH or CVVHDF AN69 150 25.7* 1610* 43 6.17 0.55 379 72.8*    [84]
Ceftazidime 12 2 g q8h CVVH PS 143 47   58.2 4.3 0.52* 344 98.7 32.1 0.69 [70]
7 3 g q24h CVVDHF AN69 150 25 1000   4 0.27* 2514 62 33.6 0.81 [69]
4 1-2 g q6h CVVH or CVVHDF AN69 or PS 130-140 25 500-1000 53.9-112 6.4 0.67   35.5-333.8 5-65.6 0.93 [82]
12 2 g q12h CVVH or CVVHDF AN69 150 25.7* 1610* 78 7.74 0.37 536 36.4*    [84]
Meropenem 8 500 mg q12h CVVH AN69 10 26.7   39.5 3.63   105.3 82.94 24.42 0.91 [71]
5 1 g q12h CVVH AN69 150 16.7–33.3    5.16 0.39* 246 4.3 1.96 0.93 [86]
5 1 g q12h CVVDHF AN69 150 16.7 – 25 1000-1500
10 1 g q8h High volume CVVH AN69 250 66.7-100   56.6 4.3 0.2 166.5 100 58.3 0.93 [72]
15 0.5-1 g q8h or q12h CVVHDF AN 69 90-150 0.17-4.5 600-1500   5.1 0.47*   75 26.7 0.65 [87]
5 0.5 g q12h CVVH PAN 200 25-30   24.5 6.37 0.37 129.5 4.57 1.03 0.63 [88]
9 0.5 g q8h or q12h CVVH AN69 150-170 1.7-2.5   38.9 8.7 0.17*   52 22 1.17 [72]
9 1 g Stat CVVH PS 150 45.8   28.1   0.37* 118 143.7 49.7 0.24 [89]
Piperacillin/ tazobactam 6 4 g q12h/0.5 g q12h CVVH PS 100 13.3    7.7/13.9    64.8/40.3    [90]
CVVHDF 1000   6.7/11.6    84.3/52.2    
2000   6.1/9.4    91.3/62.5   
8 2 g/0.25 g or 4 g/0.5 g CVVHD AN69 150 1.3-3.3 1500   4.3/5.6 0.31/0.24   47/29.5 22/17 0.87/0.64 [91]
Ceftriaxone 6 2-4 g q24h CVVH PA 100-150 20-30    10.8 0.45*    16.6 0.69 [77]
Flucloxacillin 10 4 g q8h CVVH PA 169 57   139.1-179.7 4.9 0.69* 568 117.2   0.21 [79]
  1. QB, blood flow rate; QUF, ultrafiltration rate; QDF, dialysate flow rate; RRT, renal replacement therapy; Sc, sieving coefficient; Sa, saturation coefficient; Vd, volume of distribution; CL, clearance; Cmax, peak serum concentration; tH, half-life; AUC, area under the concentration vs time curve; CVVH, continuous venovenous hemofiltration; CVVHD, continuous venovenous hemodialysis; CVVHDF, continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration; PAN, polyacrylonitrile; PS, polysulfone; PA, polyamide; *Data were converted considering 70 kg body weight.