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Table 1 Explanation of pain terminology

From: The transition from acute to chronic pain: might intensive care unit patients be at risk?

Acute pain Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing [20]). Year introduced: 2012.
Allodynia Pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain [20].
Central sensitization Increased responsiveness of nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system to their normal or subthreshold afferent input [20].
Chronic pain Pain that continues or recurs over a prolonged period, caused by various diseases or abnormal conditions [28].
Hyperalgesia Increased pain from a stimulus that normally provokes pain [20].
Hypersensitivity or hyperesthesia Increased sensitivity to stimulation, excluding the senses [20].
Long-term potentiation (LTP) A long-lasting strengthening of the response of a postsynaptic nerve cell to stimulation across the synapse that occurs with repeated stimulation and is thought to be related to learning and long-term memory [29].
Modulation The inhibition or facilitation of pain [30].
Neuropathic pain Pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system [20].
Pain affect Feeling or emotion related to pain, especially as manifested by facial expression or body language [31].
Pain sensation An unpleasant sensory experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage [20].
Peripheral sensitization Increased responsiveness and reduced threshold of nociceptive neurons in the periphery to the stimulation of their receptive fields [32].
Sensitization An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling [32].
Supraspinal Situated above the vertebral column [31].
Synaptic plasticity The ability of the connection, or synapse, between two neurons to change in strength in response to use or disuse of transmission over synaptic pathways [33].