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Table 6 General characteristics of the patients with ≥2 categorized risk factors and comparisons between patients

From: Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill medical patients: a prospective epidemiological study

  ≥2 Categorized risk factors Intra-abdominal hypertension No intra-abdominal hypertension p value
Patients (n, percent) 87 (100) 59 (67.8) 28 (32.2)  
Age (years) 55.8 ± 17.2 59.3 ± 16.4 48.5 ± 16.6 .006
Male gender (n, percent) 66 (75.9) 44 (74.6) 22 (78.6) NS
Body mass index (kilograms per square meter) 26.3 ± 5.6 27.7 ± 5.6 23.4 ± 4.2 < .001
APACHE II score, points 22.8 ± 7.9 24.4 ± 7.8 19.5 ± 7.2 .007
SOFA score on day 1, points 7.9 ± 3.9 8.8 ± 4.0 6.2 ± 3.3 .004
Number of organ failures on day 1, points 3.2 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.3 2.5 ± 1.2 .002
SOFA score maximum, points 10.5 ± 5.1 11.7 ± 4.7 7.9 ± 4.9 .001
Number of organ failures maximum, points 3.8 ± 1.5 4.2 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 1.4 < .001
Positive cumulative fluid balance during ICU stay 34 (39) 25 (42.4) 9 (32.1) NS
ICU stay (days)a 9 (4-25) 11 (7-29) 4 (3-9) < .001
Hospital stay (days)a 24 (4-55) 29 (13-61) 15 (6-34) .005
Hospital mortality (n, percent) 36 (41.4) 27 (45.8) 9 (32.1) NS
Number of categorized risk factors     
   On admission 2.4 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 0.9 2.1 ± 0.8 .05
   During ICU stay 2.8 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.6 .006
Risk factors during ICU stayb (n, percent)     
   Diminished abdominal wall compliance 83 (95.4) 57 (96.6) 26 (92.9) NS
Mechanical ventilation 77 (88.5) 51 (86.4) 26 (92.9) NS
Head of bed > 30° 83 (95.4) 57 (96.6) 26 (92.9) NS
Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 26 (29.9) 24 (40.7) 2 (7.1) .001
   Increased intraluminal contents 44 (50.6) 33 (55.9) 11 (39.3) NS
Gastroparesis 37 (42.5) 28 (47.5) 9 (32.1) NS
Ileus 21 (24.1) 16 (27.1) 5 (17.9) NS
   Increased abdominal contents 26 (29.9) 23 (39) 3 (10.7) .007
Ascites/liver dysfunction 14 (16.1) 12 (20.3) 2 (7.1) NS
Ascites of other causes 4 (4.6) 4 (6.8) 0 (0) NS
   Capillary leak syndrome/fluid resuscitation 79 (90.8) 55 (93.2) 24 (85.7) NS
Acidosis 28 (32.2) 22 (37.3) 6 (21.4) NS
Hypotension 61 (70.1) 46 (78) 15 (53.6) .02
Hypothermia 7 (8) 5 (8.5) 2 (7.1) NS
Multiple transfusions 3 (3.4) 2 (3.4) 1 (3.6) NS
Coagulopathy 40 (45.9) 30 (50.8) 10 (35.7) NS
Massive fluid resuscitation 40 (46) 30 (50.8) 10 (35.7) NS
Acute pancreatitis 5 (5.7) 5 (8.5) 0 (0) .005
Oliguria 35 (40.2) 27 (45.8) 8 (28.6) NS
Sepsis 56 (64.4) 40 (67.8) 16 (57.1) NS
IAP during ICU stay 12 ± 3 13 ± 1 8 ± 1 < .001
APP mean during ICU stay 74 ± 13 73 ± 12 74 ± 15 NS
  1. General characteristics of the patients with ≥2 categorized risk factors, and comparisons between patients with and without intra-abdominal hypertension. aData are presented as median and interquartile range. bAbdominal surgery with primary fascial or tight closure, major trauma, major burns, prone positioning, colonic pseudo-obstruction, hemoperitoneum or pneumoperitoneum; other intra-abdominal injuries and damage control laparotomy are not included due to the very low number of patients with these risk factors. APACHE II, APP, abdominal perfusion pressure; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; CRF, categorized risk factors; IAH, intra-abdominal hypertension; IAP, intra-abdominal pressure (mmHg); ICU, intensive care unit; NS, not significant; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, unless otherwise indicated.