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Table 2 Risk factors for IAH/ACS as proposed by the WSACS (adapted from [24])

From: Recognition and management of abdominal compartment syndrome among German anesthetists and surgeons: a national survey

Category Risk factors
1. Diminished abdominal wall compliance Mechanical ventilation, especially fighting with the ventilator and use of accessory respiratory muscles
  Use of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) or the presence of auto-PEEP
  Basal pleuropneumonia
  High body mass index
  Pneumoperitoneum
  Abdominal (vascular) surgery, especially with tight abdominal closures
  Pneumatic anti-shock garments
  Prone and other body positioning
  Abdominal wall bleeding or rectus sheath hematomas
  Correction of large hernias, gastroschisis or omphalocele
  Burns with abdominal eschars
2. Increased intra-luminal contents Gastroparesis/gastric distension/ileus/colonic pseudo-obstruction
  Abdominal tumor
  Retroperitoneal/abdominal wall hematoma
3. Increased intra-abdominal contents Liver dysfunction with ascites
  Abdominal infection (pancreatitis, peritonitis, abscess, etc.)
  Hemoperitoneum/pneumoperitoneum
  Acidosis (pH below 7.2)
4. Capillary leak Hypothermia (core temperature below 33°C)
  Polytransfusion/trauma (> 10 units of packed red cells/24 h
  Coagulopathy (platelet count below 5,000/mm3, an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) more than 2 times normal, a prothrombin time (PTT) below 50%, or an international standardized ration (INR) more than 1.5)
  Sepsis (as defined by the American-European Consensus Conference definitions)
  Bacteremia
  Massive fluid resuscitation (> 5 l of colloid or crystalloid/24 h with capillary leak and positive fluid balance)
  Major burns