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Table 2 Principal causes of acute systemic arterial hypertension in critically ill patients

From: Control of hypertension in the critically ill: a pathophysiological approach

Organ system Cause
Decompensated essential (primary) hypertension Secondary causes Discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs
Central Nervous System Pain
  Anxiety and stress
  Withdrawal syndromes
  Intracranial hypertension
Renal system Urinary retention
  Renal failure
Respiratory system Respiratory distress – Hypoxemia, hypercapnia
Metabolic Hypoglycemia
  Steroid administration
  Cushing syndrome
  Intoxication, substance abuse and overdose (cocaine, phencyclidine, amphetamines)