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Table 2 ICU characteristics

From: How caregivers view patient comfort and what they do to improve it: a French survey

  All ICUs (n = 292) Adult ICUs (n = 264) Pediatric ICUs (n = 28)
Tertiary teaching hospital 145 (50) 119 (45) 26 (93)*
French hospital 256 (88) 229 (87) 27 (96)
Mixed medical/surgical ICU 205 (70) 181 (69) 24 (86)
Beds per ICU (mean ± SD) 14 ± 8 14 ± 8 13 ± 5
ICU design and equipment (available in each room)
Single-occupancy rooms only 200 (68) 191 (72) 9 (32)*
Natural light 194 (66) 176 (67) 18 (64)
Adjustable light intensity 230 (79) 209 (79) 21(75)
Call device 235 (80) 216 (82) 19 (68)
Phone 76 (26) 70 (26) 6 (21)
Television 173 (59) 152 (58) 21 (75)
Radio 112 (38) 97 (37) 15 (54)
Date 33 (11) 32 (12) 1 (4)
Time 198 (68) 183 (69) 15 (53)
ICU organization
Patient to nurse ratio ≤ 2.5 145 (50) 126 (48) 19 (68)
Patient to nurse’s aide ratio ≤ 4 181 (62) 170 (64) 11 (39)
Full-time psychologist 24 (8) 15 (6) 9 (32)*
Visiting time (/day)    *
  <4 h 129 (44) 129 (49) 0 (0)
  4-12 h 111 (38) 108 (41) 3 (10)
  13-23 h 9 (3) 5 (2) 4 (14)
  24 h 43 (15) 22 (8) 21 (75)
Visits from children    
  Strictly forbidden 16 (5) 13 (5) 3 (0)
  With restrictions 240 (82) 217 (82) 23 (82)
  Without restrictions 36 (12) 36 (12) 2 (7)
Gown required for visitors 162 (55) 141 (53) 21 (75)
Pictures and personal objects allowed 280 (96) 253 (96) 27 (96)
Nonverbal means of communication 205 (70) 192 (72) 13 (46)
Care activities often or always planned for family participation 30 (10) 13 (0.5) 17 (60)*
Nurse-driven analgesia protocol 124 (42) 115 (43) 9 (32)
  1. Results are given as n (%) unless otherwise specified.
  2. *p < 0.001 vs. adult ICUs; p< 0.05 vs. adult ICUs.