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Table 1 Definition of biomarkers and subtypes according to the national institute of health[1]

From: Role of biomarkers in the management of antibiotic therapy: an expert panel review: I – currently available biomarkers for clinical use in acute infections

Denomination Definition
Biomarker Biological characteristics objectively measured, and used as a marker either of a normal or pathological biological pathway, or of a pharmacological response to a specific intervention
Biomarker type 0 Biological maker of the disease course, linked to a recognised clinical variable
Biomarker type I Biological marker reflecting the effects of a therapy, and linked to its mechanism of action
Biomarker type II Biological marker used as a surrogate endpoint, where changes in the biomarker levels are associated to a clinical benefit or to an increased risk.