Skip to main content

Table 1 Study characteristics included in systematic review

From: Hypernatremia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review

Author, Yr Inclusion & Patient Population Admission GCS Hyperosmolar therapy Na levels Outcome Adjusted Regression Parameter No. with DI (%) NOS
(No. of patients) & No. (%) & No. (%)
Aiyagari [25] (n = 4296) Admitted to ICU >17 yrs old TBI 17% Median 13 (range 3 – 15) Mannitol 605/4296 (14%); No HTS used 151 – 155 166/4296 (3.9%) ICU mortality 33/166 (20%) NR DI due to brain death excluded; vasopressin use in 34/339 (10%) of pts. with hypernatremia 7
156 – 160 78/4296 (1.8%) ICU mortality 23/78 (30%) NR
>160 95/4296 (2.2%) ICU mortality 46/95 (48%) OR 4.81 (CI 2.4 – 9.6)
OR 4.22 (CI: 1.8 – 10.6)
Froelich [26] (n = 187) GCS <9 & LOS ≥5d TBI 16% NR HTS as continuous infusion in 107/187 (57%) > 155 69/187 (37%) Creatinine >132.6 μmol/L 21/67 (31%) OR 2.8 (CI: 1.3 – 6.2) NR 8
DVT 16/69 (23%) OR 2.3 (CI: 0.9 – 5.9)
Infection 57/69 (83%)   OR 1.1 (CI: 0.4 – 2.9)
Li [27] (n = 881) TBI patients admitted to ICU ≥24 hrs Median 7 (IQR 4 – 9) Dose of mannitol reported, not proportion; HTS use NR 150 – 15434/881 (3.9%) ICU mortality 7/34 (21%) OR 9.5 (CI: 2.5 – 36.5) 6/34 (18%) 7
155 – 159 66/881 (7.5%) ICU mortality 28/66 (42%) OR 4.3 (CI: 1.5 – 12.9) 27/66 (41%)
≥ 160 167/881 (19%) ICU mortality 145/167 (87%) OR 29.3 (CI: 11.5 – 74.4) 141/167 (84%)
Maggiore [28] (n = 130) TBI with GCS ≤8 Median 3 (range 3 – 8) Mannitol in 64/130 (49%); HTS in 47/130 (36%) >145 176/1103 (16%) patient days 14d mortality 34/130 (26%) HR 4.23 (CI: 1.6 – 10.2) 0/130 8
HR 0.584 (CI: 0.07 – 3.7) 25/130 (19%)
Shehata [29] (n = 100) TBI with GCS ≤8 Range 3 - 10 NR >145 40/100 (40%) ICU mortality 36/100 (36%) HR 3.2 (CI: 1.78 – 5.7) NR 3
  1. GCS, Glasgow Coma Scale; Na, serum sodium; DI, diabetes insipidus; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; ICU, intensive care unit; HTS, hypertonic saline; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; NR, not reported; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; TBI, traumatic brain injury; HR, hazard ratio; IQR, interquartile range.
  2. Adjusted OR for mortality in patients who 1received mannitol and who 2did not receive mannitol.
  3. Adjusted HR for mortality stratified on 3no DDAVP used and 4use of DDAVP.