Self-reported tolerance limits for short-term (15 min, open bars) and longer term (24 to 48 h, closed bars) oxygenation. Bars represent percentage of respondents (n = 200). The presented case is a young to middle-aged ARDS patient in the ICU requiring mechanical ventilation. Ventilator settings (e.g., PEEP, airway pressures, I/E ratio, flow ratio) are optimized with respect to the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and hemodynamic indices. Lung injury due to high FiO2 and/or ventilator settings is minimized. There is no evidence to indicate end-organ ischemia, and hemodynamics are stable.