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Table 3 Interventions to reduce sleep disturbance

From: Sleeping on a problem: the impact of sleep disturbance on intensive care patients - a clinical review

Intervention Example
Establish a nocturnal environment By reducing volumes of alarms and phones.
Enhance staff awareness of noise produced by conversations Soundear
Employ the use of night settings in monitoring equipment with backlighting to reduce exposure to light.  
Judicious use of pharmacological agents  
Monitor, assess and treat pain  
Devise individualised sleep hygiene routines  
Employ relaxation techniques in preparation for sleep Music therapy and massage
Decrease environmental stimulus Via the use of eye masks and ear plugs
Reduce nocturnal clinical interactions Cluster clinical care and scheduling of procedures
Ventilator support to promote rest overnight  
Reduce daytime napping in order to reduce circadian dys-synchrony  
Promote daytime activity Such as sitting out of bed and mobilisation