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Table 1 Clinical and respiratory characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to transpulmonary bubble transit

From: Echocardiographic detection of transpulmonary bubble transit during acute respiratory distress syndrome

  Transpulmonary bubble transit  
  Absent-or-minor ( n  = 159) Moderate-to-large ( n  = 57) p value
Age, years 62 ± 17 61 ± 18 0.81
Male gender, n (%) 110 (69%) 40 (70%) 0.89
McCabe and Jackson classa    0.72
0 99 (62%) 34 (60%)  
1 39 (25%) 13 (23%)  
2 21 (13%) 10 (18%)  
SAPS II at ICU admission 55 ± 23 54 ± 25 0.66
Cause of lung injury, n (%)    0.80
Pneumonia 84 (53%) 34 (60%)  
Aspiration 40 (25%) 11 (19%)  
Non-pulmonary sepsis 14 (9%) 5 (9%)  
Other causes 21 (13%) 7 (12%)  
Berlin categoryb    0.34
Moderate ARDS 91 (58%) 36 (64%)  
Severe ARDS 66 (42%) 20 (36%)  
Cirrhosis 4 (3%) 4 (7%) 0.12
Respiratory settingsb    
Tidal volume, mL/kg 6.5 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 0.8 0.03
Minute ventilation 10.7 ± 2.2 10.6 ± 2.7 0.80
Respiratory rate, bpm 26 ± 4 27 ± 6 0.41
PEEP, cm H2O 9 ± 4 9 ± 3 0.68
Plateau pressure, cmH2O 24 ± 5 25 ± 5 0.70
Compliance, mL/cmH2O 32 ± 13 29 ± 11 0.20
Driving pressure, cmH2O 15 ± 5 15 ± 5 0.35
Arterial blood gasesc    
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mmHg 120 ± 56 125 ± 56 0.53
FiO2 (%) 85 ± 19 80 ± 21 0.14
PaO2, mmHg 99 ± 42 96 ± 40 0.66
Oxygenation Index 19 ± 10 19 ± 13 0.59
PaCO2, mmHg 43 ± 12 46 ± 14 0.21
pH 7.32 ± 0.12 7.33 ± 0.12 0.50
Lactate, mmol/L 2.3 ± 2.8 2.2 ± 2.1 0.87
Septic shock 105 (66%) 46 (81%) 0.04
  1. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; a[44]; brespiratory settings and criteria for Berlin definition were recorded at the time of transesophageal echocardiography; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; cblood gases were recorded on the day of transesophageal echocardiography (latest available before echocardiography) and the proportion of patients receiving nitric oxide on that day was similar in the group with moderate-to-large TPBT compared to absent-or-minor group (11 [19%] vs. 22 [14%], p = 0.34).