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Table 3 Clinical and respiratory characteristics of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome according to transpulmonary bubble transit (subgroup analysis)

From: Echocardiographic detection of transpulmonary bubble transit during acute respiratory distress syndrome

  Transpulmonary bubble transit  
  Absent to minor Moderate Large  
  ( n  = 159) ( n  = 42) ( n  = 15) p value
Age, years 63 (53 to 76) 64 (48 to 74) 72 (53 to 78) 0.64
Male gender, n (%) 110 (69.2%) 30 (71.4%) 10 (66.7%) 0.93
McCabe and Jackson class*     0.12
0 99 (62.3%) 29 (69%) 5 (33.3%)  
1 39 (24.5%) 8 (19%) 5 (33.3%)  
2 21 (13.2%) 5 (11.9%) 5 (33.3%)  
SAPS II at ICU admission 55 (38 to 69) 45 (32 to 66) 69 (47 to 81) 0.15
Cause of lung injury, n (%)     0.67
Pneumonia 84 (52.8%) 23 (54.8%) 11 (73.3%)  
Aspiration 40 (25.2%) 10 (23.8%) 1 (6.7%)  
Non-pulmonary sepsis 14 (8.8%) 3 (7.1%) 2 (13.3%)  
Other causes 21 (13.2%) 6 (14.3%) 1 (6.7%) 0.59
Berlin category     
Moderate ARDS 91 (58.0%) 26 (61.9%) 10 (71.4%)  
Severe ARDS 66 (42.0%) 16 (38.1%) 4 (28.6%)  
Cirrhosis 4 (2.5%) 1 (2.4%) 3 (20.0%)a,b 0.003
Respiratory settings#     
Tidal volume, mL/kg 6.3 (6.0 to 7.0) 6.1 (5.7 to 6.6) 6.1 (5.9 to 6.6) 0.06
Minute ventilation 10.6 (9.0 to 12.0) 10.5 (8.7 to 12.2) 10.0 (9.1 to 12.8) 0.95
Respiratory rate, bpm 25 (23 to 30) 28 (24 to 30) 25 (22 to 30) 0.46
PEEP, cmH2O 10 (5 to 12) 10 (7 to 10) 9 (5 to 12) 0.86
Plateau pressure, cmH2O 25 (21 to 28) 24 (20 to 27) 28 (24 to 28) 0.26
Compliance, mL/cmH2O 30 (22 to 38) 28 (21 to 39) 25 (20 to 30) 0.27
Driving pressure, cmH2O 15 (11 to 18) 14 (11 to 19) 17 (15 to 20) 0.14
Arterial blood gases$     
PaO2/FiO2 ratio, mmHg 112 (81 to 150) 115 (77 to 161) 132 (100 to 162) 0.46
FiO2 (%) 100 (70 to 100) 80 (60 to 100) 80 (60 to 100) 0.33
PaO2, mmHg 89 (70 to 116) 87 (69 to 103) 92 (75 to 158) 0.44
PaCO2, mmHg 41 (36 to 48) 44 (39 to 51)a 36 (33 to 46)b 0.02
pH 7.33 (7.24 to 7.40) 7.34 (7.29 to 7.41) 7.35 (7.28 to 7.40) 0.79
Lactate, mmol/L 1.3 (0.9 to 2.7) 1.4 (0.8 to 2.3) 1.8 (0.8 to 3.1) 0.87
  1. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; *44; #respiratory settings were recorded at the time of transesophageal echocardiography; PEEP, positive end-expiratory pressure; $blood gases were recorded on the day of transesophageal echocardiography (latest available before echocardiography) and the proportion of patients receiving nitric oxide and prone position on the TEE day was similar in the groups with large, moderate, or absent to minor TPBT (2 [13.3%] vs. 9 [21.4%] vs. 22 [13.9%], p = 0.48; and 1 [6.7%] vs. 7 [16.7%] vs. 22 [13.8%], p = 0.63, respectively); a p value <0.05 (corrected Mann-Whitney test after Kruskal-Wallis test) as compared to absent to minor transpulmonary bubble transit; b P value <0.05 (corrected Mann-Whitney test after Kruskal-Wallis test) as compared to moderate transpulmonary bubble transit.