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Table 2 Therapeutic targets and potential treatments of sepsis-induced immunosuppression

From: Insights and limits of translational research in critical care medicine

Biomarker Potential therapeutics Clinical data Comments
Monocyte deactivation GM-CSF Yes Restoration of HLA-DR expression [39,83]
    Clearance of uncontrolled infections [83]
    Reduced duration of mechanical ventilation [39]
  IFN-γ Yes Restoration of HLA-DR expression [38]
Apoptosis of immune cells Anti-apoptotic cytokines No  
  Caspase inhibitors No  
  Death-receptor antagonists No  
Increased Tregs Anti-Tregs antibodies No  
Depletion/deactivation of dendritic cell Flt3-L No  
  TLR-agonists No  
T cell exhaustion IL-7 Yes Ex vivo restoration of lymphocyte functions [40]
  Thymosin-α Yes Improved survival in sepsis due to carbapenem-resistant bacteria (in association with ulinastatin) [84]
  IL-15 No  
Upregulated expression of co-inhibitory receptors Monoclonal antibodies:   
  Anti-PD1/PDL1 No  
  Anti-CTLA-4 No  
  Anti-BTLA No  
  1. GM-CSF, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor; IFN-γ, interferon-γ; HLA-DR, human leukocyte antigen-DR; Tregs, T regulatory lymphocytes; Flt3-L, ligand of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3; TLR, Toll-like receptor; IL, interleukin; PD1, programmed death 1; PDL1, programmed death ligand 1; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4; BTLA, B and T lymphocyte attenuator.