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Table 1 Differences in characteristics between hospital survivors and hospital non-survivors

From: Long-term survival and quality of life after intensive care for patients 80 years of age or older

  Total (n = 395) Hospital survivors (n = 235) Hospital non-survivors (n = 160) p value
Age, mean ± SD 83.8 ± 2.9 83.5 ± 2.9 84.1 ± 2.8 0.049a
Male, % 61.0 60.9 61.3 0.511b
Length of stay (LOS), median (IQR)     
 ICU-LOS 1.8 (0.9–3.9) 1.9 (1.0–4.3) 1.7 (0.8–3.2) 0.097c
 Hospital LOS 11.3 (4.0–19.3) 14.2 (7.6–25.1) 5.5 (1.9–12.8) <0.001c
Ventilator support     
 Mechanical ventilator support, % (n) 61.3 (242) 51.9 (122) 75.0 (120) <0.001b
 Mechanical ventilator support time, median (IQR) 1.2 (0.5–3.3) 1.3 (0.5–3.8) 1.0 (0.4–3.0) 0.235c
 Non-invasive ventilator support, % (n) 33.2 (131) 35.8 (84) 29.6 (47) 0.344b
 Non-invasive ventilator support time, median (IQR) 1.5 (0.5–2.8) 1.6 (0.5–3.2) 1.3 (0.4–2.5) 0.164c
Severity score, mean ± SD     
 SAPS II 44.3 ± 15.0 (n = 390) 40.6 ± 12.9 (n = 230) 49.5 ± 16.3 (n = 160) <0.001a
 Max. SOFA 7.8 ± 3.8 (n = 389) 6.7 ± 3.3 (n = 229) 9.5 ± 3.8 (n = 160) <0.001a
Comorbidity     
 Charlson comorbidity index, mean ± SD 2.6 ± 1.9 (n = 390) 2.7 ± 1.8 (n = 234) 2.5 ± 1.9 (n = 156) 0.389a
 Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) categories, % (n)     0.602b
 None (CCI 0) 12.3 (48) 11.1 (26) 14.1 (22)  
 Mild (CCI 1–2) 40.8 (159) 39.3 (92) 42.9 (67)  
 Moderate (CCI 3–4) 32.3 (126) 34.2 (80) 29.5 (46)  
 Severe (CCI ≥5) 14.6 (57) 15.4 (36) 13.5 (21)  
Severe organ dysfunction, % (n)     
 Respiration 66.3 (262) 62.6 (147) 71.9 (115) 0.034b
 Circulation 47.1 (186) 38.7 (91) 59.4 (95) <0.001b
 Renal 28.1 (111) 20.9 (49) 38.8 (62) <0.001b
 CNS 26.1 (103) 18.7 (44) 36.9 (59) <0.001b
 Coagulation 9.9 (39) 9.8 (23) 10.0 (16) 0.537b
 Liver 1.3 (5) 0.9 (2) 1.9 (3) 0.399d
Admission categories, % (n)     <0.001b
 Planned surgery 12.7 (50) 17.9 (42) 5.0 (8)  
 Unplanned surgery 53.9 (213) 49.8 (117) 60.0 (96)  
 Medical reasons 33.4 (132) 32.3 (76) 35.0 (56)  
Diagnostic groups, % (n)     
 Respiratory failure 28.1 (111) 31.1 (73) 23.8 (38) 0.112b
 Circulatory failure 8.1 (32) 7.7 (18) 8.8 (14) 0.697b
 Combined respiratory and circulatory failure 10.4 (41) 8.9 (21) 12.5 (20) 0.254b
 Neurologic failure 10.1 (40) 9.4 (22) 11.3 (18) 0.541b
 Isolated head injury 2.5 (10) 1.7 (4) 3.8 (6) 0.328d
 Sepsis 8.9 (35) 7.2 (17) 11.3 (18) 0.168b
 Gastroenterological failure 4.8 (19) 4.7 (11) 5.0 (8) 0.884b
 Multiple organ failure 5.6 (22) 3.0 (7) 9.4 (15) 0.007b
 Multitrauma without head injury 3.8 (15) 5.1 (12) 1.9 (3) 0.099b
 Multitrauma with head injury 2.3 (9) 1.7 (4) 3.1 (5) 0.495d
 Planned surgery 3.3 (13) 5.5 (13) 0.0 (0) 0.002b
 Acute operation 6.6 (26) 7.2 (17) 5.6 (9) 0.527b
 Unspecified 5.6 (22) 6.8 (16) 3.8 (6) 0.193b
  1. IQR interquartile range, SD standard deviation, CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, SAPS II simplified acute physiology score II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, CCI Charlson comorbidity index
  2. aIndependent t test
  3. bPearson’s chi-square
  4. cMann-Whitney U test
  5. dFisher’s exact test