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Table 3 Baseline data and outcome of the 777 WhWd patients, separating withholding and withdrawal of treatment

From: Withholding or withdrawal of treatment under French rules: a study performed in 43 intensive care units

  Withholding, Withdrawal, p
N = 344 N = 433
Age (years) median (IQR) 71 (62–81) 69 (60–78) 0.03
Male 222 (64.5) 282 (65.1) 0.9
SAPS II median (IQR) 55 (44–70.5) 62 (50–75) <0.01
Knaus C and D 188 (54.7) 175 (40.4) <0.01
McCabe = 0 129 (37.5) 186 (43.0) 0.12
Charlson score 5 (3–6) 5 (3–6) 0.5
Chronic diseases:
 Cardiac 135 (39.2) 147 (33.9) 0.13
 Pulmonary 128 (37.2) 107 (24.7) <0.01
 Neurological 63 (18.3) 67 (15.5) 0.29
 Renal 50 (14.5) 59 (13.6) 0.71
 Vascular 43 (12.5) 58 (13.4) 0.71
 Hepatic 30 (8.7) 47 (10.9) 0.32
 Intestinal 26 (7.6) 28 (6.5) 0.32
Neurological deficit:
 Cognition 51 (14.5) 43 (9.9) 0.02
 Swallowing 24 (7.0) 22 (5.1) 0.17
 Hemiplegia 9 (2.6) 13 (3.0) 0.46
 Tetraplegia 7 (2.0) 4 (0.9) 0.16
Malignancies 90 (26.2) 131 (30.3) 0.20
Rare diseases 17 (4.9) 27 (6.2) 0.27
Reasons for admission:
 Respiratory failure 139 (40.4) 120 (27.7) <0.01
 Shock and MOF 90 (26.2) 125 (28.9) 0.4
 Brain injury 67 (19.5) 156 (36.0) <0.01
 Post-cardiac arrest 48 (14.0) 102 (23.6) <0.01
 Stroke 13 (3.8) 36 (8.3) <0.01
 Head trauma 6 (1.7) 18 (4.2) 0.04
 Other 48 (14.0) 32 (7.4) <0.01
LOS (days) in the ICU median (IQR) 9.5 (4–24) 7 (3–17.5) <0.01
Discharge alive from the ICU 172 (50.0) 21 (4.8) <0.01
Delay WhWd to the last day in the ICU median (IQR) 3 (1–9) 1 (0–3) <0.01
  1. Values are represented as number (%), unless stated otherwise.
  2. WhWd withhold or withdraw treatment, SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, ICU intensive care unit, MOF multiple organ failure, LOS length of stay