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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Efficacy of chlorhexidine bathing for reducing healthcare associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis

Study Bleasdale et al. [24] Climo et al. [12] Huang et al. [13] Camus et al. [25] Noto et al. [16]
Study design Prospective, 2-arm, crossover Multicenter, cluster-randomized, non-blinded crossover trial Cluster-randomized trial Multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study Multicenter, pragmatic cluster randomized, crossover, controlled study
Location Single center, USA 7 hospitals, USA 43 hospitals, USA 3 hospitals, France Single center, USA
Study site Two 11-bed medical ICUs Eight ICUs, one BMT unit 74 ICUs Medical ICUs 5 adult ICUs
Study period Jun 8 to Dec 20, 2005 and Jan 5 to Jun 21, 2006 Aug 2007 to Feb 2009 Apr 8, 2010 to Sep 30, 2011 Apr 1996 to Jun 1999 Jul 2012 to Jul 2013
 Intervention Daily bathing with 2 % chlorhexidine-impregnated cloth Daily bathing with 2 % chlorhexidine-impregnated cloth Daily bathing with 2 % chlorhexidine-impregnated cloth and twice-daily intranasal mupirocin Daily bathing with 4 % chlorhexidine soap and daily intranasal mupirocin Daily bathing with 2 % chlorhexidine-impregnated cloth
 Comparator Daily bathing with soap and water Daily bathing with non-antimicrobial washcloths Screening and isolation for MRSA colonization Daily bathing with non-antiseptic liquid soap Daily bathing with disposable non-antimicrobial cloths
Number of patients      
 Intervention 391 3970 26,024 259 4852
 Comparator 445 3842 23,480 256 4488
Number of patient-days      
 Intervention 2210 24,902 101,603 3963 20,720.5
 Comparator 2219 24,983 88,222 4276 19,201.5
Other HCAI prevention The MICU catheter insertion policy Contact precautions Contact precaution policies, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Standard precautions according to the French recommendation Contact precautions according to the usual practice of each unit
The period under observation MICU stay Between the control period and the intervention period From the third day after ICU admission through the second day after ICU discharge Between the randomization and the termination date of study treatments plus an additional 48 h During the chlorhexidine bathing period
  1. BMT bone marrow transplantation, HCAI healthcare associated infection, MICU medical intensive care unit, MRSA methicillin resistant S. aureus