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Table 1 Limitations of extravascular lung water measurement by transpulmonary thermodilution

From: Extravascular lung water in critical care: recent advances and clinical applications

Overestimation of extravascular lung water  
 Positive end-expiratory pressure (potential)  
 Lung resection (proven)  
Underestimation of extravascular lung water  
 Positive end-expiratory pressure (potential)  
 Pulmonary vascular occlusion (proven)  
 Heterogeneous lung injury (potential)  
 Pleural effusions (plausible)