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Table 2 Hemodynamic and tissue oxygenation parameters before and after 500 mL of volume expansion according to the response of VO2 in fluid-responder patients

From: Ratios of central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide content or tension to arteriovenous oxygen content are better markers of global anaerobic metabolism than lactate in septic shock patients

  VO2 change ≥15 % (n = 29) VO2 change <15 % (n = 22)
Before volume expansion After volume expansion Before volume expansion After volume expansion
Heart rate (beats/min) 108 ± 34 102 ± 26* 110 ± 27 109 ± 26
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 66 ± 16 79 ± 13* 74 ± 13 85 ± 10*
Cardiac index (L/min/m2) 2.59 [1.42–3.03] 3.02 [2.09–3.71]* 3.25 [2.49–3.65]# 3.81 [3.48–4.23]#,*
Stroke index (mL/m2) 19.4 [13.1–35.9] 27.0 [22.5–43.8]* 30.8 [21.5–34.1]# 41.0 [31.6–41.4]*
Minute ventilation (L/min) 10.4 ± 2.0 8.5 ± 1.5#
Arterial pH 7.35 [7.32–7.38] 7.36 [7.35–7.37] 7.23 [7.21–7.30]# 7.22 [7.22–7.31]#
Base excess (mmol/L) –7.21 ± 4.74 –7.11 ± 4.21 –8.15 ± 4.20 –8.25 ± 3.89
SaO2 (%) 99 [90–100] 98 [94–100] 94 [91–96]# 95 [92–98]#,*
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 10.1 ± 1.3 9.5 ± 1.1* 10.7 ± 1.0 10.1 ± 0.9#,*
CaO2 (mL) 12.8 ± 2.0 12.8 ± 1.7 13.2 ± 1.4 13.2 ± 1.2
PaCO2 31 ± 5 31 ± 6 43 ± 8# 42 ± 7#
CaCO2 (mL) 37.1 [30.0–49.2] 37.2 [28.8–46.4]* 40.5 [35.6–46.9] 37.2 [34.9–42.8]*
Venous pH 7.31 [7.24–7.34] 7.33 [7.27–7.33] 7.22 [7.18–7.24]# 7.21 [7.20–7.27]#,*
ScvO2 (%) 63 ± 11 63 ± 10 58 ± 14 69 ± 10#,*
CcvO2 (mL) 8.4 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 1.6* 8.2 ± 2.2 9.6 ± 1.8#,*
PcvCO2 (mmHg) 40 ± 7 38 ± 7* 49 ± 7# 47 ± 6#,*
CcvCO2 (mL) 43.4 [35.1–53.3] 41.4 [31.8–49.6]* 43.6 [40.2–47.3] 39.9 [37.9–43.3]*
DO2 (mL/min/m2) 297 ± 86 381 ± 84* 409 ± 80# 529 ± 84#,*
VO2 (mL/min/m2) 95 ± 27 134 ± 30* 148 ± 43# 145 ± 37
OE 0.34 ± 0.11 0.37 ± 0.10* 0.37 ± 0.15 0.28 ± 0.09#,*
∆PCO2 (mmHg) 7.0 [6.0–14.0] 6.0 [5.0–12.0]* 4.0 [3.7–9.0]# 3.0 [3.0–6.0]#,*
∆ContO2 (mL) 4.3 ± 1.6 4.7 ± 1.4* 5.0 ± 2.1 3.7 ± 1.1#,*
∆ContCO2 (mL) 5.2 [3.9–6.3] 3.0 [2.8–4.2]* 1.8 [0.3–4.7]# 1.5 [0.5–3.3]#,*
∆PCO2/∆ContO2 (mmHg/mL) 2.20 [1.70–2.33] 1.66 [1.10–1.96]* 1.05 [1.02–1.14]# 1.13 [0.83–1.35]#
∆ContCO2/∆ContO2 1.22 [1.05–1.26] 0.65 [0.65–0.70]* 0.53 [0.09–0.64]# 0.46 [0.14–0.70]#
Lactate (mmol/L) 5.8 [3.2–7.6] 5.0 [2.8–6.9]* 2.9 [2.1–4.9]# 2.7 [1.4–4.4]#,*
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD or as median [interquartile range, 25–75]
  2. SaO 2 arterial oxygen saturation, CaO 2 arterial oxygen content, PaCO 2 arterial carbon dioxide tension, ScvO 2 central venous oxygen saturation, CcvO 2 central venous oxygen content, PcvCO 2 central venous carbon dioxide tension, DO 2 oxygen delivery, VO 2 oxygen consumption, ∆PCO 2 venous–arterial carbon dioxide tension difference, CaCO 2 arterial carbon dioxide content, CcvCO 2 central venous carbon dioxide content, ∆ContO 2 arterial-to-central venous oxygen content difference, ∆ContCO 2 central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide content difference, OE oxygen extraction
  3. * p < 0.05 after vs. before volume expansion. #p < 0.05 patients with a VO2 < 15 % versus patients with a VO2 ≥ 15 %