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Table 4 Answers to semiquantitative and qualitative clinical questions by residents and the expert

From: Can we improve transthoracic echocardiography training in non-cardiologist residents? Experience of two training programs in the intensive care unit

Semiquantitative and qualitative clinical questionsa Resident accuracy, % Sens/Spe/PPV/NPV Expert’s positive results, n (%) Agreement between residents and expert, κ (95 % CI)
Group I Group II Group I Group II Group I Group II p*
Global LV systolic function (n = 136/ n = 156)
 Any dysfunction 96/85/75/97 93/92/79/97 45 (33) 42 (26) 0.75 (0.64–0.86) 0.77 (0.66–0.88) 0.93
 Severe dysfunction 58/96/69/93 93/99/93/99 19 (14) 15 (9) 0.57 (0.37–0.78) 0.93 (0.82–1) 0.004
Heterogeneous LV contraction (n = 115/n = 136) 65/89/71/85 19/80/50/49 34 (30) 41 (30) 0.55 (0.38–0.72) 0.49 (0.33–0.65) 0.54
RV dilatation (n = 133/n = 152)        
 Any dilatation 56/90/56/90 80/89/73/93 25 (19) 40 (26) 0.46 (0.27–0.65) 0.67 (0.54–0.80) 0.08
 Severe dilatation 55/99/86/96 88/98/70/99 11 (8) 8 (5) 0.64 (0.38–0.91) 0.80 (0.56–0.96) 0.35
Paradoxical septum (−/n = 150) 50/100/100/97 10 (7) 0.65 (0.37–0.93)
Significant LS valve disease (n = 119/n = 146) 55/95/69/91 91/95/76/98 16 (13) 21 (15) 0.54 (0.33–0.75) 0.79 (0.66–0.93) 0.02
 Significant MR (n = 127/n = 145) 50//98/40/98 80/96/57/99 4 (3) 10 (7) 0.42 (0.01–0.84) 0.64 (0.40–0.87) 0.42
 Significant MS (n = 116/n = 145) 50/100/100/98 67/100/100/99 4 (3) 3 (2) 0.66 (0.22–1) 0.80 (0.41–1) 0.41
 Significant AR (n = 128/n = 141) 0/98/0/98 100/100/100/100 3 (2) 2 (2) –0.02 (–0.04–0) 1 0.001
 Significant AS (n = 112/n = 143) 60/100/100/98 86/100/100/99 5 (4) 7 (5) 0.74 (0.40–1) 0.92 (0.76–1) 0.37
Pericardial effusion (n = 133/n = 157)
 Any 87/94/62/99 93/96/68/99 13 (8) 14 (9) 0.83 (0.67–0.99) 0.76 (0.60–0.93) 0.59
 Significant 100/100/100/100 100/100/100/100 8 (6) 7 (4) 1 1
 Tamponade 100/100/100/100 0 2 (1) 1
Significant respiratory variations of IVC diameter (n = 76/n = 116) 53/95/75/88 42/84/59/72 17 (22) 41 (35) 0.53 (0.30–0.77) 0.27 (0.09–0.45) 0.09
  1. AR aortic regurgitation, AS aortic stenosis, CI confidence interva, LV left ventricular, IVC inferior vena cava, LS left-sided, MR mitral regurgitation, MS mitral stenosis, NPV negative predictive value, PPV positive predictive value, RV right ventricular
  2. * Comparison of κ values between group I and group II
  3. aThe number of comparisons is noted for each clinical question and for each group (group I/group II)