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Table 1 Comparison of baseline characteristics and outcomes between patients treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy alone

From: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus noninvasive ventilation in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: an observational cohort study

  NIV (n = 55) HFNC (n = 60) p value
Age (years) 58 (44–66) 62 (50–70) 0.06
Gender (male) 42 (76 %) 35 (58 %) 0.048
Knaus chronic health status score    0.46
 A 15 (27 %) 19 (32 %)  
 B 17 (31 %) 22 (37 %)  
 C 21 (38 %) 15 (25 %)  
 D 2 (3.6 %) 4 (6.7 %)  
Mac Cabe classification    0.20
 1 20 (36 %) 19 (32 %)  
 2 19 (35 %) 30 (50 %)  
 3 16 (29 %) 11 (18 %)  
SAPS II at ICU admission (points) 42 ± 11 46 ± 13 0.10
Modified SOFA score at inclusion (points) 3 (1–6) 4 (1–6) 0.28
 Type of immunosuppression    0.30
  Hematologic cancer or neutropenia 33 (60 %) 31 (52 %)  
  Solid cancer 11 (20 %) 8 (13 %)  
  Drug-induced immunosuppression 10 (18 %) 20 (33 %)  
  Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 1 (2 %) 1 (2 %)  
 Cause of respiratory failure    0.38
  Documented infection 24 (44 %) 31 (52 %)  
  Cardiogenic pulmonary edema 5 (9 %) 5 (8 %)  
  Specific 13 (24 %) 6 (10 %)  
  Other identified causes 7 (13 %) 11 (18 %)  
  Not identified cause 6 (11 %) 7 (12 %)  
 Clinical and biological parameters at inclusion    
  Heart rate (beats/min) 111 ± 22 113 ± 23 0.71
  Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 130 (113–150) 119 (110–147) 0.28
  Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 30 (26–33) 29 (26–32) 0.75
  SpO2 (%) 94 (91–98) 96 (94–99) 0.02
  Body temperature (°C) 37.8 ± 1.1 38.0 ± 1.1 0.47
  Bilateral lung infiltrates on chest X-ray 46 (84 %) 50 (83 %) >0.99
  Arterial pH 7.44 (7.40–7.47) 7.46 (7.43–7.50) 0.02
  PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 141 (111–177) 149 (107–204) 0.19
  PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg 47 (85 %) 44 (73 %) 0.17
  PaCO2 (mmHg) 37 (32–45) 32 (29–38) <0.0001
  PaCO2 > 45 mmHg 12 (22 %) 2 (3 %) 0.003
  Sodium bicarbonate (mmol/l) 25 (22–28) 21 (24–26) 0.04
Vasopressors within 24 h after ICU admission 9 (16 %) 14 (23 %) 0.35
Time from admission to ventilatory support initiation (h) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0.62
Need for immunosuppressive drug during ICU stay 13 (24 %) 15 (25 %) >0.99
Admission before 2011 26 (47 %) 12 (20 %) <0.0001
 Primary outcome    
  28-day mortality 22 (40 %) 12 (20 %) 0.02
 Secondary outcomes    
  Intubation 30 (55 %) 21 (35 %) 0.04
  Time from admission to intubation (h) 28 (18–49) 35 (9–49) 0.99
  Length of invasive mechanical ventilation (days) 8 (4–11) 7 (4–12) 0.63
  Length of ICU stay (days) 8 (5–13) 7 (4–9) 0.08
  In-ICU mortality 20 (36 %) 9 (15 %) 0.01
  1. Nominal variables are given as number (%), and continuous data are given as median (25th–75th percentile) or mean ± standard deviation (SD) according to their distribution using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test
  2. SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment