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Table 4 Comparison of baseline characteristics and outcomes between propensity score-matched patients treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy alone

From: High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy versus noninvasive ventilation in immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure: an observational cohort study

  NIV (n = 24) HFNC (n = 33) p value
Age (years) 62 ± 11 62 ± 11 0.72
Gender (male) 18 (75 %) 17 (52 %) 0.13
Knaus chronic health status score    0.53
 A 8 (33 %) 9 (27 %)  
 B 6 (25 %) 11 (33 %)  
 C 10 (42 %) 11 (33 %)  
 D 0 (0.0 %) 2 (6.1 %)  
Mac Cabe classification    0.27
 1 11 (46 %) 12 (36 %)  
 2 6 (25 %) 15 (45 %)  
 3 7 (29 %) 6 (18 %)  
SAPS II at ICU admission (points) 40 ± 11 44 ± 12 0.52
Modified SOFA score at inclusion (points) 1.5 (0.0–4.0) 3.0 (1.0–6.0) 0.44
Type of immunosuppression    0.19
 Hematologic cancer or neutropenia 12 (50 %) 18 (55 %)  
 Solid cancer 7 (29 %) 3 (9.1 %)  
 Drug-induced immunosuppression 5 (21 %) 11 (33 %)  
 Acquired immune deficiency syndrome 0 (0.0 %) 1 (3.0 %)  
Cause of respiratory failure    0.08
 Documented infection 9 (38 %) 19 (58 %)  
 Cardiogenic pulmonary edema 4 (27 %) 3 (9.1 %)  
 Specific 6 (25 %) 1 (3.0 %)  
 Other identified causes 2 (8.3 %) 6 (18 %)  
 Not identified cause 3 (13 %) 4 (12 %)  
Clinical and biological parameters at inclusion    
 Heart rate (beats/min) 107 ± 21 112 ± 21 0.55
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 140 ± 22 127 ± 23 0.17
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 30 ± 6 29 ± 6 0.76
 SpO2 (%) 94 ± 5 96 ± 4 0.10
 Body temperature (°C) 37.9 ± 1.1 37.9 ± 1.1 0.66
 Bilateral lung infiltrates on chest X-ray 19 (79 %) 31 (93 %) 0.12
 Arterial pH 7.45 ± 0.07 7.46 ± 0.06 0.43
 PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 154 ± 57 156 ± 57 0.98
 PaO2-to-FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg 18 (75 %) 24 (73 %) 0.85
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 39 ± 8 33 ± 5 0.03
 PaCO2 > 45 mmHg 4 (17 %) 1 (3.0 %) 0.15
 Sodium bicarbonate (mmol/l) 26 ± 4 24 ± 4 0.10
Vasopressors within 24 h after ICU admission 1 (4.2 %) 4 (12 %) 0.39
Time from admission to ventilatory support initiation (h) 1 (0–1) 1 (0–1) 0.98
Need for immunosuppressive drug during ICU stay 5 (21 %) 4 (12 %) 0.47
Admission before 2011 12 (50 %) 7 (21 %) 0.04
Primary outcome    
 28-day mortality 10 (42 %) 5 (15 %) 0.03
Secondary outcomes    
 Intubation 13 (54 %) 10 (30 %) 0.07
 Mortality of intubated 10/13 (77 %) 4/10 (40 %) 0.07
 Time from admission to intubation (h) 48 (20–78) 35 (22–59) >0.99
 Length of invasive mechanical ventilation (days) 8 (5–18) 5 (3–10) >0.99
 Length of ICU stay (days) 7 (5–16) 6 (4–9) 0.13
 In-ICU mortality 10 (42 %) 4 (12 %) 0.01
  1. Nominal variables are given as number (%), and continuous data are given as median (25th–75th percentile) or mean ± standard deviation (SD) according to their distribution using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test
  2. SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment