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Table 2 Univariate ordinal logistic regression model linking demographic, physiological and laboratory parameters to AKI in HH

From: Outcome and features of acute kidney injury complicating hypoxic hepatitis at the medical intensive care unit

Parameter Overall AKI Stage p value*
n = 295 0 (n = 55) 1 (n = 23) 2 (n = 56) 3 (n = 161)
Baseline characteristics
 Age, years (IQR) 63 (51–72) 60 (45–71) 62 (50–77) 65 (54–71) 63 (52–71) 0.325
 Sex (male), n (%) 201 (68 %) 31 (56 %) 19 (83 %) 35 (63 %) 116 (72 %) 0.086
 SAPS II (IQR) 62 (45–79) 50 (33–68) 52 (37–73) 59 (38–75) 70 (52–86) <0.001
 SOFA (IQR) 11 (8–15) 10 (7–12) 9 (7–12) 10(6–13) 12 (8–16) <0.001
 Respiratory rate, bpm (IQR) 20 (16–25) 18 (15–22) 18 (15–27) 20 (16–25) 21 (17–27) 0.080
 Body temperature, C° (IQR) 36.0 (34.8–36.8) 35.5 (33.6–36.5) 35.6 (33.5–36.5) 36.4 (35.2–36.9) 36.1 (35.0–36.8) 0.893
 Heart rate, bpm (IQR) 81 (65–104) 79 (61–95) 83 (60–107) 79 (60–98) 83 (66–108) 0.119
 Mean arterial pressure, mmHg (IQR) 68 (57–79) 73 (63–83) 72 (58–80) 70 (61–83) 65 (54–76) <0.01
 Preexisting liver cirrhosis, n (%) 22 (7 %) 1 (2 %) 0 5 (9 %) 16 (10 %) <0.05
Cause of HH
 Cardiogenic shock, n (%)a 133 (45 %) 27 (49 %) 15 (65 %) 28 (50 %) 63 (39 %) <0.05
 Septic shock, n (%)a 109 (37 %) 12 (22 %) 5 (22 %) 14 (25 %) 78 (48 %) <0.001
 Hemorrhagic shock, n (%) 8 (3 %) 0 0 1 (2 %) 7 (4 %) 0.081
Therapy
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 225 (76 %) 36 (66 %) 19 (83 %) 35 (63 %) 135 (84 %) <0.01
 Vasopressor use, n (%) 247 (84 %) 38 (69 %) 18 (78 %) 35 (80 %) 146 (91 %) <0.001
RRT, n (%) 122 (41 %) 0 0 0 122 (76 %) <0.001
Laboratory parameters on admission
 Arterial lactate, mmol/l (IQR) 3.5 (1.7–8.2) 2.0 (1.2–4.4) 2.7 (1.6–5.7) 3.5 (2.1–6.9) 4.3 (2.1–10.6) <0.001
 Arterial pH (IQR) 7.30 (7.20–7.40) 7.39 (7.30–7.47) 7.32 (7.28–7.39) 7.32 (7.24–7.41) 7.27 (7.15–7.36) <0.001
 Sodium, mmol/l (IQR) 138 (133–142) 138 (133–140) 140 (136–143) 138 (133–141) 138 (133–142) 0.387
 Potassium, mmol/l (IQR) 4.5 (3.9–5.2) 4.1 (3.6–4.7) 4.0 (3.7–4.4) 4.5 (4.1–5.1) 4.7 (4.1–5.5) 0.906
 Albumin, g/l (IQR) 29.3 (24.1–34.0) 29 (24–32) 30 (26–36) 30 (24–35) 29 (24–34) 0.405
 AST, U/l (IQR) 366 (73–1265) 345 (77–781) 474 (85–1341) 699 (108–1599) 248 (57–1475) 0.142
 ALT, U/l (IQR) 139 (39–706) 129 (55–639) 219 (54–631) 217 (44–1470) 124 (34–682) 0.731
 INR (IQR) 1.4 (1.2–1.9) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 1.4 (1.2–1.9) 1.5 (1.2–2.1) 0.142
 Bilirubin, mg/dl (IQR) 1.3 (0.7–2.7) 1.0 (0.6–2.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.6) 1.3 (0.8–3.1) 1.4 (0.7–3.2) <0.05
Outcome
 28-day mortality, n (%) 170 (58 %) 17 (31 %) 6 (26 %) 25 (45 %) 122 (76 %) <0.001
  1. SAPS II simplified acute physiology score, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, HH hypoxic hepatitis, MCI myocardial infarction, RRT renal replacement therapy, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, INR international normalized ratio, IQR interquartile range
  2. p values calculated using univariate ordinal logistic regression modeling with intercept
  3. aThree patients had both cardiogenic and septic shock (mixed shock)