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Table 1 Characteristics of study population

From: Unsuspected serotonin toxicity in the ICU

Variable N = 61
Age in years [mean (SD)] 65 (16)
Male [n (%)] 43 (71 %)
ICU admission [n (%)] 51 (84 %)
MCU admission [n (%)] 10 (16 %)
Day of admission delirium was diagnosed [mean (SD)] 5 (4)
Admission category  
 Cardiac arrest [n (%)] 8 (13 %)
 Neurology/neurosurgery [n (%)] 10 (16 %)
 Multi-trauma [n (%)] 3 (5 %)
Confirmed infection [n (%)] 16 (26 %)
Acute kidney failure [n (%)] 17 (28 %)
APACHE II score [mean (SD)] 22,6 (6,8)
APACHE IV score [mean (SD)] 39 (26,2)
SOFA score [mean (SD)] 6,7 (3,2)
Comorbidity  
 Psychiatric disorder [n (%)] 4 (7 %)
 Dementia [n (%)] 2 (3 %)
Mechanical ventilated [n (%)a] 25 (41 %)
Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scaleb  
 Agitation (RASS > 0) [n (%)] 36 (59 %)
 Lightly sedated (RASS ≤ 0 ≥ −2) [n (%)] 23 (38 %)
 Moderate–heavily sedated (RASS < −2) [n (%)] 2 (3 %)
Sedationb [n (%)] 40 (66 %)
 Midazolam [n (%)] 13 (21 %)
 Propofol [n (%)] 13 (21 %)
 Clonidine [n (%)] 18 (30 %)
 Benzodiazepines per os [n (%)] 27 (44 %)
Chronic alcohol (ab)use [n (%)]c 6 (10 %)
Acute alcohol intoxication [n (%)] 3 (5 %)
Chronic benzodiazepine use [n (%)] 8 (13 %)
Recreational drug intoxication [n (%)]d 2 (3 %)
Morphine-like analgesics [n (%)] 20 (33 %)
Serotonergic medication [n (%)] 44 (72 %)
  1. ICU intensive care unit, MCU medium care unit, APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, CAM-ICU Confusion Assessment Measurement for the ICU, SD standard deviation, RASS Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale >0 = agitated
  2. aAt point of physical examination
  3. bAt enrollment
  4. cMore than three units/day for more than 3 months
  5. dAmphetamines