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Table 1 Clinical characteristics, outcome data and biochemistry values on day 1 of admission

From: Impact of chloride and strong ion difference on ICU and hospital mortality in a mixed intensive care population

  Entire cohort
n = 10,165
Admission type
Medical
n = 3505 (34.5 %)
Elective surgery Emergency surgery and trauma
n = 2109 (20.7 %)
Cardiac Other
n = 2357 (23.2 %) n = 2194 (21.6 %)
Demographic data
 Female (%) 3861 (38.0 %) 1369 (39.1 %) 754 (32.0 %) 914 (41.7 %) 824 (39.1 %)
 Age (mean in years ± SD) 62.7 ± 15.3 63.0 ± 15.0 68.7 ± 10.7 60.1 ± 14.4 58.1 ± 17.0
 SAPS-3 (mean ± SD) 49.5 ± 16.2 61.3 ± 14.5 40.5 ± 8.9 36.8 ± 10.9 53.1 ± 14.1
Comorbidities [n (%)]
 Chronic kidney disease 1317 (12.9 %) 600 (17.1 %) 297 (12.6 %) 187 (8.5 %) 233 (11.1 %)
 Heart failure 2931 (28.8 %) 963 (27.19 %) 1392 (59.1 %) 217 (9.9 %) 369 (17.5 %)
 COPD 1120 (11.0 %) 490 (14.0 %) 228 (9.7 %) 243 (11.1 %) 159 (7.5 %)
 Diabetes mellitus 1743 (17.2 %) 671 (19.1 %) 489 (20.8 %) 290 (13.2 %) 293 (13.9 %)
 Liver cirrhosis 348 (3.4 %) 202 (5.8 %) 10 (0.4 %) 63 (2.9 %) 73 (3.5 %)
 Malignancy 440 (4.3 %) 96 (2.7 %) 11 (0.5 %) 283 (12.9 %) 50 (2.37 %)
Outcome [n (%)]      
 30-day ICU mortality 929 (9.1 %) 622 (17.8 %) 54 (2.3 %) 44 (2.0 %) 209 (9.9 %)
 Hospital mortalitya 1661 (19.7 %) 1061 (37.6 %) 99 (4.5 %) 173 (10.0 %) 327 (19.1 %)
Covariates of interest on day of admission (mean ± SD)    
 Chloride (mmol/L) 107.3 ± 5.5 104.6 ± 6.0 111.3 ± 3.4 107.6 ± 3.9 107.1 ± 5.3
 SIDa (mEq/L) 42.9 ± 3.6 44.3 ± 4.0 41.2 ± 3.0 42.4 ± 2.9 43.1 ± 3.4
Biochemistry and physicochemical covariates on day of admission (mean ± SD)  
 Sodium (mmol/L) 140.1 ± 4.9 138.8 ± 5.4 142.3 ± 3.7 139.9 ± 3.7 140.1 ± 5.2
 Lactate (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 2.5 2.8 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 2.4
 Albumin (g/L) 27.2 ± 7.0 28.5 ± 6.9 23.0 ± 5.0 28.5 ± 6.1 28.2 ± 8.0
 SIDa incl. lactate (mEq/L) 40.6 ± 3.9 42.0 ± 4.3 38.4 ± 2.9 40.7 ± 3.0 40.7 ± 3.6
 SIDe (mEq/L) 33.7 ± 4.9 34.8 ± 5.8 30.6 ± 3.3 34.7 ± 3.5 34.0 ± 4.6
 SIG (mEq/L) 6.9 ± 3.5 7.2 ± 3.8 7.8 ± 2.9 5.9 ± 3.0 6.6 ± 3.7
  1. SAPS Simplified Acute Physiology Score, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SIDa apparent strong ion difference, SIDe effective strong ion difference, SIG strong ion gap
  2. aIf more than one ICU admission, only data on the last admission were used