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Table 1 Predictive factors of 28-day mortality determined by univariate analysis in 218 cirrhotic patients admitted to the ICU

From: Prognosis of cirrhotic patients admitted to the general ICU

  28-day survivors (n = 102) 28-day non-survivors (n = 116) p
Variable
 Age 57 (50–66) 59 (51–68) 0.47
 Male sex 75 (74) 90 (78) 0.53
 Hepatology transfer 31 (30) 54 (47) 0.02
 Diabetes mellitus 36 (35) 24 (21) 0.02
 Smoker 88 (86) 89 (77) 0.08
 Chronic renal failure 9 (9) 10 (9) 1
 Cancer 15 (15) 15 (13) 0.84
Characteristics of cirrhosis
 Alcoholic cause 83 (81) 101 (88) 0.26
 Viral cause 14 (14) 18 (16) 0.70
 Esophageal varices 72 (71) 86 (75) 0.54
 Ascites 63 (62) 86 (74) 0.06
Diagnosis at ICU admission
 Hemodynamic failure 34 (34) 81 (70) <0.0001
 Gastrointestinal bleeding 13 (13) 15 (13) 1
 Respiratory failure 43 (42) 36 (31) 0.09
 Severe sepsis 18 (18) 42 (36) 0.002
 Septic shock 12 (12) 26 (22) 0.048
 Renal failure 20 (20) 34 (29) 0.12
 Neurological failure 60 (59) 56 (48) 0.14
 Cardiorespiratory arrest 2 (2) 16 (14) 0.002
Clinical parameters at ICU admission
 Temperature 37.0 (36.1–37.6) 36.0 (35.0–37.0) <0.0001
 Systolic arterial pressure 110 (100–126) 100 (90–112) <0.0001
 Mean arterial pressure 70 (65–80) 62 (55–68) <0.0001
Biological parameters at ICU admission
 International normalized ratio 2.1 (1.7–2.8) 3.6 (2.3–6.5) <0.0001
 Blood glucose (mmol/L) 7.4 (6.0–9.5) 6.0 (3.7–8.4) 0.0002
 Creatinine (µmol/L) 127 (78–210) 186 (118–293) 0.001
 pH 7.37 (7.29–7.44) 7.25 (7.09–7.39) <0.0001
 Lactate (mmol/L) 2.4 (1.7–3.6) 4.7 (2.5–11.3) <0.0001
 PaO2/FiO2 290 (190–400) 200 (118–348) 0.003
 White blood cells (×109/L) 10.5 (7.4–15.5) 12.5 (8.4–19.0) 0.03
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 9.9 (8.8–11.4) 8.8 (7.4–11.0) 0.005
 Platelets (×109/L) 113 (79–172) 90 (62–141) 0.005
 Bilirubin (µmol/L) 37 (20–90) 112 (34–248) <0.0001
 Albumin (g/L) 26 (22–30) 22 (18–28) 0.002
 Prothrombin rate (%) 43 (33–54) 25 (16–39) <0.0001
Prognostic scores at ICU admission
 Child–Pugh 10 (8–12) 11 (10–13) <0.0001
 MELD 21 (15–29) 35 (25–45) <0.0001
 IGS II 49 (39–60) 68 (57–81) <0.0001
 APACHE II 23 (18–27) 28 (23–34) <0.0001
 SOFA 10 (7–12) 14 (11–17) <0.0001
 CLIF-SOFA 13 (10–15) 16 (13–19) <0.0001
Prognostic score after ICU admission
 SOFA at day 3 8 (5–10) 16 (12–19) <0.0001
Clinical feature during ICU stay
 Mechanical invasive ventilation 76 (75) 106 (91) 0.009
 Vasopressor therapy 78 (76) 109 (94) 0.0003
 Renal replacement therapy 28 (27) 84 (72) <0.0001
 MARS 8 (8) 14 (12) 0.37
Clinical course in ICU
 Documented infection 76 (75) 94 (81) 0.26
 Severe sepsis 56 (55) 88 (76) 0.002
 Septic shock 35 (34) 63 (54) 0.004
 Gastrointestinal bleeding 30 (29) 39 (34) 0.56
 Hepatic encephalopathy 64 (63) 57 (49) 0.06
  1. Numbers are n (%), median [interquartile range], MARS molecular adsorbent recirculating system