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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients

From: Neutrophil expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) anti-inflammatory protein is associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome severity

Patients Ventilated controls (n = 14) Mild (n = 1) and moderate (n = 6) ARDS Severe ARDS (n = 10) p value
Age (years, median ± IQR) 56 ± 19 52 ± 24 59 ± 6 0.82
Male/female (number) 9/5 6/1 7/3 0.78
Comorbidities     
 Smoking (number, percentage) 4 (29%) 5 (71%) 2 (20%) 0.07
 Obstructive airway diseases (number, percentage) 5 (36%) 5 (71%) 4 (40%) 0.27
 Cardiovascular disease (number, percentage) 1 (7%) 1 (14%) 0.49
 Diabetes (number, percentage) 2 (14%) 1 (14%) 0.45
 Malignancy (number, percentage) 1 (14%) 1 (10%) 0.39
Reasons for ICU admission
 Sepsis (number, percentage) 7 (50%) 6 (86%) 8 (80%) 0.15
 Pneumonia (number, percentage) 5 (36%) 5 (71%) 5 (50%) 0.30
 Postoperative care (number, percentage) 11 (79%) 7 (100%) 9 (90%) 0.36
 Congestive heart failure (number, percentage) 2 (14%) 1 (14%) 0.45
 Hemorrhagic shock (number, percentage) 1 (14%) 2 (29%) 0.13
 Trauma (number, percentage) 4 (29%) 1 (14%) 3 (30%) 0.73
 SAPS II (median ± IQR) 39.0 ± 13.5 45.0 ±  21.0 43.5 ± 20.5 0.67
 SOFA at inclusion (median ± IQR) 6 ± 4 7 ± 2 7.5 ± 3.5 0.06
 CRP at inclusion (mg/L, median  ± IQR) 217 ± 325 211 ± 195 273 ± 313 0.80
 Number of samples per patient (range) 1–5 1–5 1–9
Cause of lung injury
 Pneumonia at inclusion (number, percentage) 5 (36%) 5 (71%) 8 (80%) 0.081
 Aspiration (number, percentage) 1 (7%) 2 (29%) 3 (30%) 0.29
 Septic shock at inclusion (number, percentage) 5 (36%) 6 (86%) 8 (80%) 0.043
 Extra pulmonary cause (number, percentage) 3 (43%) 2 (20%) 0.038
 Steroid therapya (number, percentage) 1 (7%) 1 (14%) 5 (50%) 0.051
 Vasoactive agent therapya (number, percentage) 7 (50%) 7 (100%) 6 (60%) 0.065
 Lung injury score at inclusion (median ± IQR) 0.67 ± 0.91 2.33 ± 0.66 3.00 ± 0.72 <0.0001
Respiratory variables
 Positive end-expiratory pressure, cmH20 (median ± IQR) 5 ± 0.5 8 ± 1 9 ± 2 0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 at inclusion mmHg (median ± IQR) 253 ± 85 210 ± 49 67 ± 29 <0.0001
 PaCO2 at inclusion mmHg (median ± IQR) 41 ± 5 43 ± 4 43 ± 4 0.72
 ECMOa (number, percentage) 6 (60%) 0.0004
 Mortality at day 28 (number, percentage) 4 (28%) 2 (29%) 6 (60%) 0.26
  1. ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, LIS Lung Injury Score [23], SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [21], ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, CRP C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range
  2. p values: determined by Kruskal–Wallis test or Fisher’s exact test for continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  3. aDuring the ICU stay