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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, interventions used and glucometrics of patients treated by the Leuven versus Yale protocol

From: A comparison of two insulin infusion protocols in the medical intensive care unit by continuous glucose monitoring

  Total cohort Leuven Yale Statistics
Number of patients 57 22 35 p value
Patient demographics     
 Men/women 30/27 13/9 17/18 NS
 Diabetic status (no/type1/type2) 36/6/15 9/4/9 27/2/6 0.0016
 Age (years) 64 ± 12 60 ± 13 66 ± 10 0.055
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.8 ± 5.4 27.5 ± 7.1 26.3 ± 4.0 NS
Admission reason     
 Septic shock 22 13 9 NS
 Neurologic disease/coma 9 0 9 0.004
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 9 1 8 NS
 Respiratory failure 6 1 5 NS
 Cardiogenic shock 7 3 4 NS
 Other 4 4 0 NS
Severity of illness     
APACHE-II score 28 ± 7 27 ± 7 28 ± 7 NS
SOFA score 10 ± 4 9 ± 4 11 ± 3 0.072
Clinical interventions     
 Mechanical ventilation 44 16 28 NS
 Vasopressor therapy 35 14 21 NS
 Inotropic therapy 20 6 14 NS
 Hemodialysis 14 9 5 NS
 No/total parenteral/enteral feeding 17/17/23 9/10/3 8/7/20 0.003
 Glucocorticoids 27 12 15 NS
 Blood transfusion 15 4 11 NS
 Antibiotics 46 19 27 NS
Outcome parameters     
 LOS in ICU (days) 15 ± 9 11 ± 6 17 ± 10 0.019
 In hospital mortality 20 7 11 NS
Insulin dose     
 Day 1 (units)   138 (48–190) 50 (27–80) 0.001
 Day 2 (units)   116 (54–116) 56 (28–81) 0.006
Glucose parameters     
 HbA1c (%)   6.3 (5.8–7.0) 6.0 (5.7–6.6) NS
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)   45 (40–53) 42 (39–49) NS
 Median glycemia (mg/dl)   128 (106–154) 118 (108–128) NS
 % of time at glycemia     
  <60 mg/dl   5 (1–8) 0 (0–2) 0.001
  80–110 mg/dl   26 ± 11 37 ± 15 0.001
  >150 mg/dl   29 ± 23 17 ± 13 <0.0001
  >200 mg/dl   13 ± 19 3 ± 5 <0.0001
  60–150 mg/dl   66 ± 24 81 ± 7 <0.0001
  70–180 mg/dl   69 ± 19 91 ± 10 <0.0001
 Nr of art blood glc measurements/day   10 ± 2 10 ± 4 NS
 Glucose variability parameters     
  SD (mg/dl)   47 (31–71) 28 (21–37) 0.001
  Coefficient of variation (%)   36 (26–50) 23 (19–31) 0.001
  IQR   66 (47–82) 37 (27–43) <0.0001
  MAGE (mg/dl)   73 (47–128) 52 (37–83) 0.061 (NS)
  MODD (mg/dl)   60 (33–94) 35 (26–41) 0.001
  M-100   10 (4–25) 4 (2–5) <0.0001
  CONGA1 (mg/dl)   20 (14–39) 15 (13–24) NS
  CONGA2 (mg/dl)   30 (22–53) 23 (18–34) 0.036
  CONGA4 (mg/dl)   38 (28–66) 29 (20–43) 0.012
  LBGI   2.6 (1.0–3.7) 0.7 (0.4–1.4) 0.011
  HBGI   2.5 (1.0–8.0) 1.3 (0.5–1.8) 0.018
  Glucose variability   42 (29–67) 28 (20–34) 0.001
  1. Data are presented as numbers, as mean ± SD or median (25–75th percentile)
  2. LOS in ICU length of stay in ICU, IQR interquartile range, MAGE mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, MODD mean of daily differences, LBGI low blood glucose index, HBGI high BGI