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Table 1 Summary of methods predicting preload responsiveness with diagnostic threshold and limitations

From: Prediction of fluid responsiveness: an update

Method Threshold Main limitations
Pulse pressure/stroke volume variations [22] 12% Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, cardiac arrhythmias, low tidal volume/lung compliance
Inferior vena cava diameter variations [44] 12% Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, low tidal volume/lung compliance
Superior vena caval diameter variations [44] 36%* Requires performing transesophageal Doppler
Cannot be used in case of spontaneous breathing, low tidal volume/lung compliance
Passive leg raising [55] 10% Requires a direct measurement of cardiac output
End-expiratory occlusion test [75] 5% Cannot be used in non-intubated patients
Cannot be used in patients who interrupt a 15-s respiratory hold
“Mini”-fluid challenge (100 mL) [84] 6%** Requires a precise technique for measuring cardiac output
“Conventional” fluid challenge (500 mL) [81] 15% Requires a direct measurement of cardiac output
Induces fluid overload if repeated
  1. * Thresholds from 12 to 40% have been reported
  2. ** 10% is more compatible with echography precision. Citations indicate the most important reference regarding the test