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Table 2 Conditions where pulse pressure and stroke volume variations are less reliable

From: Prediction of fluid responsiveness: an update

Spontaneous breathing False+
Cardiac arrhythmias False+
Low Vt/low lung compliance False−
Open chest False−
Increased intra-abdominal pressure False+
Very high respiratory rate (HR/RR < 3.6) False−
Right heart failure* False+
  1. * See text for details