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Table 3 Baseline plasma concentrations of immune-modulating ingredients and changes from baseline on day 4 and 8 in medical and non-medical critically ill patients

From: Glutamine, fish oil and antioxidants in critical illness: MetaPlus trial post hoc safety analysis

Immune-modulating nutrient concentrations IMHP (n = 54) mean (SD) HP (n = 55) mean (SD) P value
3a: Medical patients (n = 109)    
Glutamine (μmol/L)    
 Baseline (BL) 393 (155) 406 (168) 0.687
 Day 4—BL 102 (141) 36 (141) 0.017
 Day 8—BL 77 (148) 10 (168) 0.070
(epa + dha)/lcf ratio (×10−2)    
 Baseline 2.5 (1.1) 2.5 (1.1) 0.948
 Day 4—BL 3.3 (2.1) −0.4 (0.5) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 5.3 (2.2) −0.7 (0.7) <0.001
Selenium (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 0.84 (0.37) 1.08 (1.00) 0.113
 Day 4—BL 0.16 (0.33) −0.16 (1.08) 0.057
 Day 8—BL 0.21 (0.43) −0.08 (1.26) 0.200
Vit E (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 20.3 (7.6) 22.1 (7.2) 0.208
 Day 4—BL 19.5 (13.9) 2.5 (6.3) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 29.1 (18.8) 5.7 (8.9) <0.001
Vit C (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 11.1 (14.0) 15.6 (22.0) 0.245
 Day 4—BL 13.6 (17.5) −4.4 (21.9) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 19.7 (18.5) −5.6 (26.3) <0.001
Zinc (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 8.09 (6.05) 7.06 (4.05) 0.321
 Day 4—BL 0.73 (4.17) 1.56 (3.56) 0.308
 Day 8—BL 2.09 (3.90) 3.66 (4.34) 0.119
Immune-modulating nutrient concentrations IMHP (n = 98) mean (SD) HP (n = 94) mean (SD) P value
3b Non-medical patients (n = 192)    
Glutamine (μmol/L)    
 Baseline (BL) 350 (163) 327 (104) 0.252
 Day 4—BL 55 (180) 27 (118) 0.206
 Day 8—BL 16 (191) 30 (137) 0.586
(epa + dha)/lcf ratio (×10−2)    
 Baseline 2.5 (1.0) 2.7 (0.9) 0.226
 Day 4—BL 3.5 (2.2) −0.2 (0.6) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 5.0 (2.7) −0.4 (0.6) <0.001
Selenium (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 0.99 (0.46) 0.99 (0.55) 0.928
 Day 4—BL 0.13 (0.59) 0.03 (0.56) 0.272
 Day 8—BL 0.17 (0.73) 0.15 (0.68) 0.900
Vit E (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 19.6 (6.6) 20.5 (8.2) 0.399
 Day 4—BL 19.7 (13.9) 3.3 (5.8) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 26.7 (14.4) 6.6 (7.5) <0.001
Vit C (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 9.7 (8.2) 9.8 (7.7) 0.904
 Day 4—BL 7.0 (13.2) −2.1 (6.3) <0.001
 Day 8—BL 11.6 (14.7) −0.2 (9.3) <0.001
Zinc (μmol/L)    
 Baseline 6.18 (3.25) 6.24 (3.76) 0.907
 Day 4—BL 1.20 (3.13) 1.36 (3.85) 0.754
 Day 8—BL 3.98 (4.59) 3.44 (6.39) 0.538
  1. All tests were performed with two-sample t tests
  2. IMHP immune-modulating high-protein enteral nutrition, HP high-protein enteral nutrition, sd standard deviation, (epa + dha)/lcf ratio (eicosapentaenoicacid + decosahexaenoicacid)/long-chain fatty acid plasma level ratio, BL baseline, Day 4—BL change in plasma concentration from baseline to day 4, Day 8—BL change in plasma concentration from baseline to day 8