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Table 2 Clinical manifestations of 31 patients with invasive fungal tracheobronchitis

From: Invasive fungal tracheobronchitis in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: underlying conditions, diagnosis, and outcomes

Variable No. of patients (%)
APACHE II score on ICU admission, mean ± SD 23.1 ± 10.4
AKI requiring RRT 14 (45.2)
RF before diagnosis reached 31 (100)
Time in the ICU before diagnosis, days (IQR) 5 (1.8–8)
Length of ICU stay, days (IQR) 14 (8–27)
Concurrent bacterial sepsis 18 (58.1)
Parenchymal involvement 31 (100)
CT scan 21 (67.7)
 Consolidation 19 (61.3)
 Cavitation 4 (12.9)
 Air crescent sign 1 (3.2)
Bronchoscopic classification
 Pseudomembranous 27 (87.1)
 Ulcerative 12 (38.7)
 Obstructive 4 (12.9)
Diagnosis of IFT
 Proven 25 (80.6)
 Probable 6 (19.4)
Pathogen
 Aspergillus spp. 19 (61.3)
  Aspergillus fumigatus 11 (35.4)
  Aspergillus flavus 2 (6.5)
  Aspergillus terrus 1 (3.2)
  Undifferentiated Aspergillus species 5 (16.1)
 Mucorales 8 (25.8)
 Candida spp. 2 (6.5)
 Undifferentiated mold 2 (6.5)
BAL fungal culture
 Positive 25 (80.6)
 Negative 6 (19.4)
Galactomannan level in Aspergillus tracheobronchitis
 Serum (index) 3.44 ± 2.8
 BAL (index) 4.87 ± 2.6
Antifungal therapy 29 (93.5)
 Voriconazole 15 (48.4)
 Echinocandin 19 (61.3)
 Combination therapy 8 (25.8)
  1. APACHE II Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, ICU intensive care unit, SD standard deviation, AKI acute kidney injury, RRT renal replacement therapy, RF respiratory failure, IQR interquartile range, CT computed tomography, IFT invasive fungal tracheobronchitis, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage