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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics at admission

From: Persistent lymphopenia is a risk factor for ICU-acquired infections and for death in ICU patients with sustained hypotension at admission

Variable Population
N = 753
No ICU-acquired infection (N = 579) With ICU-acquired infection (N = 174) P value Alive
(N = 592)
Dead
(N = 161)
P value
Age 68 [56–78] 67.6 [56–78] 69 [55–77] 0.4106 66.5 [55–77] 71.5 [59–79] 0.02
Men 467 (62) 342 (59) 125 (72) 0.0023 359 (61) 108 (67) 0.13
Length of stay (days) 9 [6–18] 7 [5–13] 23 [14–37] <.0001 9 [5–19] 10 [7–17] 0.18
Center
 A 501 (66.5) 402 (69) 99 (57) 0.0030 406 (69) 95 (59.0) 0.002
 B 105 (14) 80 (14) 25 (14)   86 (14) 19 (12)  
 C 35 (4.6) 21 (3.6) 14 (8.0)   27 (4.6) 8 (5.0)  
 D 112 (15) 76 (13) 36 (21)   73 (12) 39 (24)  
Admission category     0.7400    0.003
 Medical 596 (79) 457 (19) 139 (80)   454 (77) 142 (88)  
 Unscheduled surgery 104 (14) 79 (14) 25 (14)   94 (16) 10 (6)  
 Scheduled surgery 53 (7) 43 (7) 10 (6)   44 (7) 9 (6)  
Co-morbidities (Knaus definitions)
 Chronic hepatic failure 45 (6.0) 41 (7) 4 (2.3) 0.0196 30 (5) 15 (9) 0.044
 Chronic cardiovascular failure 101 (13.4) 70 (12) 31 (18) 0.0519 70 (12) 31 (19) 0.014
 Chronic respiratory failure 157 (20.8) 120 (21) 37 (21) 0.8780 126 (21) 31 (19) 0.57
 Chronic renal failure 61 (8.1) 47 (8.1) 14 (8.0) 0.9758 44 (7.4) 17 (10.6) 0.19
 Immunosuppression 69 (9.2) 54 (9.3) 15 (8.6) 0.7772 59 (10.0) 10 (6.2) 0.14
Long-term corticosteroids use 24 (3.2) 19 (3.3) 5 (2.9) 0.7882 20 (3.4) 4 (2.5) 0.57
History of chemotherapy 40 (5.3) 31 (5) 9 (5.2) 0.9254 31 (5) 9 (5) 0.86
Main reason of admission
 Coma 106 (14) 81 (14) 25 (14) 0.8999 81 (14) 25 (15) 0.55
 Acute respiratory failure 211 (28.0) 150 (26) 61 (35) 0.0184 164 (27.7) 47 (29) 0.71
 Septic shock 154 (20.4) 123 (21) 31 (18) 0.3257 121 (20) 33 (20) 0.99
 Cardiogenic shock 39 (5) 14 (4) 15 (8) 0.0195 22 (4) 17 (11) 0.0005
 Hemorrhage shock 50 (6.6) 40 (7) 10 (6) 0.5895 43 (7) 7 (4) 0.19
 Multi-organ failure 21 (3) 11 (2) 10 (6) 0.0069 14 (2) 7 (4) 0.17
 Shock (other) 27 (3.6) 23 (4) 4 (2) 0.2978 21 (3.5) 6 (4) 0.91
 Other 145 (19) 127 (22) 18 (10) 0.0007 126 (21) 19 (12) 0.007
SAPS II score 49 [37–60] 48 [3–59] 51 [40–62] 0.0374 47 [36–57] 57 [46–66] <0.0001
SOFA score 8 [5–11] 8 [5–11] 10 [7–12] <.0001 7.5 [5–11] 10 [7–12] <0.0001
Cardiovascular SOFA score (>2) 462 (61) 333 (57) 129 (74) <.0001 333 (56) 129 (80) <0.0001
Mechanical ventilation 559 (74) 411 (71) 148 (85) 0.0002 422 (71) 137 (85) 0.0004
Antibiotic day 1 or 2 581 (77) 448 (77) 133 (76) 0.80 455 (78) 126 (78) 0.71
  1. Data are expressed as number (%) or median [interquartile]. ICU: intensive care unit; SAPS II: Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment. Of note, in some cases, septic shock was not the cause of admission in ICU, but developed within the first hours of ICU admission