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Table 3 Analysis of changes in the level and trend in outcomes after implementation of the nurse-driven sedation protocol

From: Implementation and evaluation of a paediatric nurse-driven sedation protocol in a paediatric intensive care unit

Outcomes Pre-implementation period
From 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2013
(n = 104 children)
Post-implementation period
From 1 May 2014 to 31 March 2015
(n = 93 children)
Overall trend before the implementation of protocola p value Immediate change after the implementation of protocolb p value Change in trend after the implementation of protocolc p value
Duration of mechanical ventilation (days) −0.35 (0.42) 0.450 0.17 (1.64) 0.923 −0.05 (0.60) 0.933
PICU length of stay (days) −0.71 (0.90) 0.476 6.56 (3.49) 0.134 −1.07 (1.28) 0.450
Sufentanil
 Daily dose (μg/kg/day) 0.19 (0.31) 0.574 0.38 (1.22) 0.770 −0.21 (0.44) 0.668
 Duration of administration (h) −3.31 (4.79) 0.528 −1.42 (18.6) 0.943 −1.32 (6.78) 0.855
Midazolam
 Daily dose (mg/kg/day) −0.12 (0.18) 0.541 0.04 (0.69) 0.955 0.02 (0.25) 0.944
 Duration of administration (h) 0.27 (3.59) 0.944 −13.4 (13.9) 0.389 −3.39 (5.07) 0.541
Ketamine
 Daily dose (mg/kg/day) 1.11 (2.96) 0.727 1.97 (11.5) 0.872 −3.06 (4.19) 0.506
 Duration of administration (h) 7.06 (21.2) 0.756 −4.82 (82.1) 0.956 −17.2 (30.0) 0.598
  1. Negative numbers represent a decline, and inversely, positive numbers represent an increase in outcomes values
  2. aMean change (standard deviation in brackets) of each outcome per semester before the implementation of the protocol
  3. bExpressed as a mean change (standard deviation in brackets) of each outcome immediately after implementation of the nurse-driven protocol compared with the pre-implementation period
  4. cMean change (standard deviation in brackets) of each outcome per semester after the implementation of the protocol compared with the pre-implementation period