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Table 2 Blood gases, hemodynamic, ventilation, and metabolic parameters before and after hyperventilation

From: Acute hyperventilation increases the central venous-to-arterial PCO2 difference in stable septic shock patients

  Baseline Hyperventilation p value
PaCO2 [median (IQR), mmHg] 44 [41–48] 34 [30–38] <0.001
PcvCO2 [median (IQR), mmHg] 49 [46–53] 42 [38–44] <0.001
∆PCO2 (mean ± SD, mmHg) 4.7 ± 1.0 7.0 ± 2.6 <0.001
∆PCO2 ≤ 6 mmHg [n (%)] 17 (94.4) 8 (44.4) 0.004
Arterial pH (mean ± SD) 7.35 ± 0.07 7.42 ± 0.09 <0.001
Central venous pH (mean ± SD) 7.33 ± 0.07 7.39 ± 0.08 <0.001
Bicarbonate (mean ± SD, mmol/L) 25.6 ± 1.8 24.9 ± 1.6 <0.001
Base excess (mean ± SD, mmol/L) 0.1 ± 2.1 0.6 ± 2.1 0.002
PaO2/FiO2 (mean ± SD, mmHg) 210 ± 88 205 ± 92 0.64
CI (mean ± SD, L/min/m2) 3.03 ± 0.79 3.00 ± 0.78 0.27
Heart rate [median (IQR), beats/min] 85 [79–90] 86 [78–88] 0.70
Stroke index (mean ± SD, mL/m2) 36.2 ± 10.1 35.4 ± 10.3 0.25
MAP (mean ± SD, mmHg) 77 ± 8 79 ± 10 0.10
ScvO2 (mean ± SD, %) 73 ± 6 67 ± 8 <0.001
DO2 (mean ± SD, mL/min/m2) 396 ± 121 395 ± 114 0.62
VO2 [median (IQR), mL/min/m2] 93 [76–105] 112 [95–134] 0.002
OE (mean ± SD, %) 24.5 ± 5.8 31.4 ± 8.1 <0.001
Lactate (mean ± SD, mmol/L) 1.15 ± 0.47 1.35 ± 0.50 <0.001
SVRI (mean ± SD, dynes s/m2/cm5) 1645 ± 379 1940 ± 464 <0.001
Tidal volume [median (IQR), mL] 455 [430–500] 450 [430–500] 0.08
Respiratory rate [median (IQR), breaths/min] 20 [18–20] 30 [28–30] <0.001
Minute ventilation (mean ± SD, L/min) 8.3 ± 1.6 12.6 ± 2.2 <0.001
Plateau pressure (mean ± SD, cm H2O) 23.5 ± 3.7 23.1 ± 4.7 0.60
Temperature (mean ± SD, °C) 37.1 ± 0.6 37.2 ± 0.6 0.21
  1. PaCO2, partial arterial carbon dioxide tension; ∆PCO2, venous–arterial carbon dioxide tension difference; PaO2, partial arterial oxygen tension; FiO2, fractional inspired oxygen level; CI, cardiac index; MAP, mean arterial pressure; ScvO2, central venous oxygen saturation; DO2, oxygen delivery; VO2, oxygen consumption; OE, oxygen extraction; SVRI, systemic vascular resistance index; IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation