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Table 1 Summary of included randomized controlled trials

From: Earlier versus later initiation of renal replacement therapy among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

  References Population setting Study period Nation Sites1 Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria n Male Mean
Age
Mode Sepsis Endpoint Counts
1 Bouman [53] Mixed Not specified Netherland M Oliguria <30 cc/h, shock with vasopressor support eGFR <30; cirrhosis obstructive AKI 71 42 (59%) 68.4 CRRT n/a In-hospital mortality I: 18/35
C: 14/36
In-ICU mortality I: 13/35
C: 10/36
28-day mortality I: 11/35
C: 9/36
2 Durmaz [38] Surgical n/a Turkey S n/a n/a 44 n/a n/a IHD 2 (4.5%) In-hospital mortality I: 1/20
C: 7/16
3 Sugahara [33] Surgical 1995–1997 Japan S Urine output < 30 cc/h or increase in SCr > 0.5 mg/dL/day Pregnant
Severe hepatic dysfunction (serum bilirubin level of 5.0 mg/dL or higher)
Mental disorders Cancers
28 18 (64%) 64.5 CRRT n/a 14-day mortality I: 2/14
C: 12/14
4 Koo [34] Mixed Not specified Korea S Severe sepsis or septic shock Not specified 102 62 (61%) 62 CRRT 102 (100%) In-hospital mortality I: 12/43
C: 30/59
5 Jamale [37] Mixed 2011–2012 India S Severe AKI with increasing BUN and SCr levels Needing urgent dialysis; Previous dialysis history
Recovering AKI
208 141 (68%) 42.4 IHD 44 (21%) In-hospital mortality I: 21//102
C: 13/106
6 Combes [35] Surgical 2009–2012 France M Postoperative shock, needing high dose vasopressors or ECMO <18 years old; pregnant; Enrolled into current or other trials previous RRT Weight > 120 kg
SAPSII > 90
224 177 (79%) 59.4 CRRT n/a In-hospital mortality I: 50/112
C: 44/112
In-ICU mortality I: 50/112
C: 44/112
30-day mortality I: 40/112
C: 40/112
60-day mortality I: 48/112
C: 42/112
90-day mortality I: 51/112
C: 43/112
7 Wald [36] Mixed 2013–2013 Canada M KDIGO AKI Stage 3, oliguria > 12 h or NGAL > 400 ng/ml Withdrawal of life support Intoxication
RRT within the previous 2 months; renal obstruction, rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, or interstitial nephritis; eGFR < 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 the passage of 48 h since doubling of baseline serum creatinine
100 72 (72%) 63.1 Mixed 56 (56%) In-hospital mortality I: 16/48
C: 19/52
In-ICU mortality I: 13/48
C: 16/52
90-day mortality I: 18/48
C: 19/52
8 Zarbock [29] Surgical 2013–2015 Germany S KDIGO AKI stage 2 eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.732 m2 previous RRT
AKI caused by permanent occlusion of renal artery or surgery
Glomerular nephritis, interstitial nephritis, hemolytic uremic syndrome
Pregnancy
AIDS
Heptorenal syndrome
231 146 (63%) 67.0 CRRT 75 (32%) 30-day mortality I: 34/112
C: 48/119
60-day mortality I: 43/112
C: 60/119
90-day mortality I: 44/112
C: 65/119
9 Gaudry [28] Mixed 2013–2016 France M Ischemic or toxic AKI and receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, catecholamine infusion or both, and AKIN Stage 3 BUN > 112 mg/dL
Blood K > 6.0 mmol/L
A pH < 7.15
Acute pulmonary edema
619 405 (65% 66.2 Mixed 483 (78%) 30-day mortality I: 129/311
C: 134/308
60-day mortality I: 150/311
C: 153/308
  1. I Intervention group, C control group, RCT randomized controlled trial, S single-center study, M multicenter study, n/a not available, BUN blood urea nitrogen, SCr serum creatinine, ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenator, AKI acute kidney injury
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