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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with sepsis and septic shock on presentation in the three study phases: pre-intervention (A), intervention phase I (B) and intervention phase II (C)

From: The impact of a multifaceted intervention including sepsis electronic alert system and sepsis response team on the outcomes of patients with sepsis and septic shock

All patients Pre-intervention
A
Intervention phase I
B
Intervention phase II
C
Crude p value p value after propensity score adjustment
N = 436 N = 195 N = 699 B vs. A C vs. B C vs. A B vs. A C vs. B C vs. A
Source of sepsis, no. (%)
 Pneumonia 228 (52.3) 93 (47.7) 281 (40.2) 0.29 0.06 <0.0001 0.99 0.98 0.96
 Urinary tract infection 70 (16.1) 28 (14.4) 107 (15.3) 0.59 0.74 0.74 0.78 0.90 0.38
 Acute abdominal infection 40 (9.2) 8 (3.6) 47 (6.7) 0.03 0.18 0.13 0.05 0.37 0.17
 Soft tissue infection 8 (1.8) 8 (4.1) 32 (4.6) 0.10 0.78 0.01 0.42 0.84 0.56
 Other infections 138 (31.7) 68 (34.9) 254 (36.3) 0.43 0.71 0.11 0.92 0.60 0.48
Signs and symptoms, no. (%)
 Hyperthermiaa 114 (26.2) 52 (26.7) 172 (24.6) 0.89 0.56 0.56 0.81 0.15 0.47
 Hypothermiaa 34 (7.8) 6 (3.1) 7 (1.0) 0.02 0.04 <0.0001 0.99 0.86 0.81
 Acutely altered mental status 157 (36.0) 48 (24.6) 59 (8.4) 0.005 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.98 0.67 0.71
 Chills and rigors 11 (2.5) 7 (3.6) 2 (0.3) 0.46 0.001 0.0006 0.55 0.0007 0.02
 Tachycardiaa 354 (81.2) 168 (86.2) 624 (89.3) 0.13 0.23 0.0001 0.76 0.44 0.49
 Tachypneaa 368 (84.4) 174 (89.2) 583 (83.4) 0.11 0.05 0.66 0.44 0.34 0.92
 Hypotensiona 368 (84.4) 111 (56.9) 265 (37.9) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.004 0.42 <0.0001
 Hypoxiaa 101 (23.2) 79 (40.5) 227 (32.5) <0.0001 0.04 0.0008 0.94 0.96 0.99
Laboratory findings, no. (%)
 Leukocytosisa 237 (54.4) 85 (43.6) 229 (32.8) 0.01 0.005 <0.0001 0.14 0.003 <0.0001
 Leukopeniaa 36 (8.3) 6 (3.1) 21 (3.0) 0.02 0.96 <0.0001 0.99 0.99 0.92
 Increased creatininea 107 (24.5) 4 (2.1) 1 (0.1) <0.0001 0.009 <0.0001 0.97 0.99 0.68
 Thrombocytopeniaa 40 (9.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1) <0.0001 1.0 <0.0001 0.43 0.99 0.70
 Hyperbilirubinemiaa 44 (10.1) 1 (0.5) 1 (0.1) <0.0001 0.39 <0.0001 0.82 0.94 0.68
 Hyperlactatemiaa 168 (38.5) 70 (35.9) 320 (45.8) 0.53 0.01 0.02 0.99 0.99 0.98
 Coagulopathya 67 (15.4) 2 (1.0) 1 (0.1) <0.0001 0.12 <0.0001 0.87 0.86 0.67
Classification, no. (%)
 Sepsis 108 (24.8) 99 (50.8) 584 (83.6) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.93 0.78 0.68
 Septic shock 328 (75.2) 96 (49.2) 115 (16.5)       
  1. aHyperthermia: temperature >38 °C, hypothermia: temperature <36 °C, tachycardia: heart rate >90/min, tachypnea: respiratory rate >20/min, hypotension: systolic blood pressure <90, mean arterial pressure <65 or systolic blood pressure decrease >40 mmHg from baseline, hypoxia: oxygen requirement to maintain oxygen saturation >90%, leukocytosis: WBC count >12 × 109/L, leucopenia: white blood cell count <4 × 109/L, increased creatinine: creatinine increase >176.8 mmol/L, thrombocytopenia: platelet count <100 × 109/L, hyperbilirubinemia: bilirubin >34.2 mmol/L, hyperlactatemia: lactate >2 mmol/L, coagulopathy: international normalized ratio (INR) >1