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Table 2 Management of ARDS patients meeting ARDS criteria within 48 h of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure onset (n = 2813)

From: Etiologies, diagnostic work-up and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome with no common risk factor: a prospective multicenter study

Parameters ARDS patients with ≥1 risk factor identified (n = 2579) ARDS patients with no risk factor identified (n = 234) p valuea
Diagnostic procedures    
Assessment of LHFP 1780 (68.4) 160 (69.4) >0.99
 Echocardiography 1636 (63.4) 151 (64.5) 0.79
 Pulmonary artery catheter 103 (4.0) 14 (6.0) 0.20
 TTP 166 (6.4) 10 (4.3) 0.24
 Other methods 155 (6.0) 12 (5.1) 0.69
Chest CT scan 617 (23.9) 75 (32.1) <0.01
  Number of chest CT scan 0 [0–0] 0 [0–1] <0.01
Open lung biopsy 5 (0.2) 6 (2.6) <0.01
Treatment of ARDS    
Neuromuscular blocking agents    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 440 (17.1) 26 (11.1) 0.02
 At any time during ICU stay 517 (20.0) 33 (14.1) 0.04
Recruitment maneuvers    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 446 (17.3) 30 (12.8) 0.10
 At any time during ICU stay 506 (19.6) 33 (14.1) 0.05
Prone positioning    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 134 (5.2) 8 (3.4) 0.30
 At any time during ICU stay 190 (7.4) 11 (4.7) 0.17
ECMO    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 60 (2.3) 6 (2.6) >0.99
 At any time during ICU stay 70 (2.7) 8 (3.4) 0.67
Inhaled vasodilators    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 156 (6.0) 7 (3.0) 0.08
 At any time during ICU stay 200 (7.9) 10 (3.8) 0.02
Corticosteroids    
 In the 1st 72 h of ARDS 367 (14.2) 39 (16.7) 0.36
 At any time during ICU stay 467 (18.1) 41 (17.5) 0.89
  1. Categorical variables are shown as n (%)
  2. ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CT, computed tomography; LHFP, left heart filling pressure; TTP, transpulmonary thermodilution device; ICU, intensive care unit; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  3. a p value represents comparisons across ARDS with or without known risk factor; parametric or nonparametric tests were used according to the distribution of variables