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Table 3 Risk factors and etiologies identified for ARDS patients meeting ARDS criteria within 48 h of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure onset (n = 2813)

From: Etiologies, diagnostic work-up and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome with no common risk factor: a prospective multicenter study

Common risk factors a identified in 2579 ARDS patients b  
 Pneumonia 1683 (65.2)
 Non-pulmonary sepsis 455 (17.6)
 Aspiration of gastric contents 402 (15.6)
 Non-cardiogenic shock 214 (8.3)
 Major trauma 112 (4.3)
 Blood transfusion 111 (4.3)
 Pulmonary contusion 87 (3.4)
 Inhalational injury 70 (2.7)
 Pancreatitis 59 (2.3)
 Drug overdose 51 (2.0)
 Pulmonary vasculitisc 38 (1.5)
 Burn 8 (0.3)
 Drowning 2 (0.1)
 Othersd 74 (2.9)
Etiologies for ARDS in 234 patients having no common risk factor identified  
 Interstitial lung disease 9 (3.8)e
 Drug-induced ARDS 8 (3.4)f
 Massive hemoptysis 8 (3.4)
 Pulmonary embolism 3 (3.4)
 Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage 3 (3.4)
 Alveolar proteinosis 3 (3.4)
 Miscellaneous 11 (4.7)g
 No etiology identified 189 (80.8)
  1. Variables are shown as n (%)
  2. ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
  3. aAs listed in the Berlin definition of ARDS [1]
  4. bSome patients had several risk factors
  5. c Including 24 patients who had both one or more common risk factors for ARDS and pulmonary vasculitis
  6. dIncludes conditions likely to be associated with common risk factors (e.g., major surgery (n = 23), coma/neurological disorders (n = 16), cardiogenic shock or cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 9), cardiac arrest (n = 8), and others (n = 18))
  7. eWith no specific diagnosis
  8. fIncluding amiodarone (n = 4), bicalutamide (n = 1), warfarin (n = 1), chemotherapy agent (n = 1), not specified (n = 1)
  9. gIncluding lung tumoral infiltration (n = 2), acute interstitial pneumonia (n = 1), Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytic syndrome (n = 1), lymphoproliferative disease with lung involvement (n = 1), graft versus host disease (n = 1), primary graft dysfunction (n = 1), gas embolism (n = 1), ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (n = 1), Castleman’s disease (n = 1)