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Table 5 Outcome of ARDS patients meeting ARDS criteria within 48 h of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure onset (n = 2813)

From: Etiologies, diagnostic work-up and outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome with no common risk factor: a prospective multicenter study

Parameters Before propensity score matching After propensity score matching
ARDS patients with ≥1 risk factor identified (n = 2579) ARDS patients with no risk factor identified (n = 234) p valuea ARDS patients with ≥1 risk factor identified (n = 214) ARDS patients with no risk factor identified (n = 214) p valuea
Matched variables       
Age (years) 61 ± 17 65 ± 15 <0.01 68 ± 14 66 ± 15 0.08
Immunoincompetence 544 (21.9) 40 (17.9) 0.17 34 (15.9) 38 (17.8) 0.67
Diabetes 548 (21.2) 65 (27.8) 0.025 62 (29.0) 61 (28.5) 0.99
COPD 527 (20.4) 80 (34.2) <0.01 73 (34.1) 72 (33.6) 0.99
Chronic renal failure 248 (9.6) 38 (16.2) <0.01 30 (14.0) 33 (15.4) 0.75
Chronic cardiac failure 252 (9.8) 38 (16.2) <0.01 38 (17.8) 34 (15.9) 0.66
Chronic liver failure 106 (4.1) 6 (2.6) 0.33 5 (2.3) 6 (2.8) 0.99
pH 7.33 ± 0.12 7.33 ± 0.12 0.90 7.33 ± 0.12 7.33 ± 0.12 0.99
PaO2/FiO2 ratio (mmHg) 159 ± 67 169 ± 68 0.03 169 ± 65 168 ± 68 0.86
Set PEEP (cmH2O) 8.2 ± 3.2 7.5 ± 2.4 <0.01 7.7 ± 2.8 7.5 ± 2.4 0.43
Day 1 non-pulmonary SOFA scorec 6.3 ± 4.1 5.3 ± 3.7 <0.01 5.6 ± 3.9 5.5 ± 3.7 0.70
NIV 378 (14.7) 58 (24.8) <0.01 46 (21.5) 47 (22.0) 0.91
Outcome variables       
Invasive ventilation free days to day 28 (days) 9 [0–21] 14 [0–24] <0.01 10 [0–21] 14 [0–24] 0.16
Duration of invasive ventilation (days)       
 All patients 8 [4–15] 6 [3–14] <0.01 8 [4–16] 6 [3–14] <0.01
 Surviving patients 9 [4–15] 5 [3–12] <0.01 8 [4–16] 8 [4–14] <0.01
ICU length of stay (days)
 All patients 10 [5–18] 8 [4–16] <0.01 11 [5–20] 8 [4–16] 0.02
 Surviving patients 11 [6–20] 8 [4–15] <0.01 11 [5–22] 8 [4–16] 0.02
Decision of withholding or withdrawing treatments 639 (24.8) 63 (26.9) 0.52 53 (24.8) 59 (27.6) 0.56
ICU Mortality 902 (35.0) 64 (27.3) 0.02 67 (31.3) 59 (27.6) 0.44
Hospital length of stay (days)
 All patients 17 [8–32] 14 [8–26] 0.03 18 [10–32] 14 [8–26] <0.01
 Surviving patients 23 [13–40] 16 [11–31] <0.01 25 [14–44] 16 [10–32] <0.01
Hospital mortality 1029 (40.0) 81 (34.6) 0.12 81 (37.9) 75 (35.1) 0.60
  1. Categorical variables are shown as n (%); Continuos variables are expressed as median [1st–3rd quartiles]
  2. ARDS: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; SOFA: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; FiO2, inspired fraction of oxygen; ICU, intensive care unit
  3. a p value represents comparisons across ARDS with or without known risk factor; Parametric or nonparametric tests were used according to the distribution of variables